Natural Environment Monitoring, 2009, No 10, pp.19-28
MODIFICATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS CONCENTRATION IN PRECIPITATION BY FOREST TREES AT PUSZCZA BORECKA
Anna Degórska, Stanisława Górska
The aim of the study was comparison of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in the precipitation, throughfall and stemflow at Puszcza Borecka. Based on the results of these measurement it can be noticed:
- the course of concentration and deposition for all the compounds were similar;
- at part of the precipitation samples PAHs concentrations were higher than in corresponding througfall samples, but at part the relationship was opposite; modification of PAHs content in precipitation after going through the forest was in some cases caused by washing off the PAHs from the leafs and in some other cases by stopping them in the leafs;
- the highest PAHs concentrations have been observed in the samples of hornbeam stemflow that might be caused by the washing off the cork; this process didn’t occur or was much less intensive in case of oak and particularly – spruce.
It has to be underlined that the research of PAHs content in precipitation at open space and at the forest have been conducted during relatively short period so the conclusions cannot be too strong. It would be good to continue such investigations in cold season but it would be very difficult from the technical point of view.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2011, No 12, 137-143
CHANGES IN THE POSITION OF THE CARPATHIAN RIVERS BED IN THE LIGHT OF LOW WATER LEVELS ANALYSIS
Łukasz Wiejaczka, Małgorzata Kijowska
This paper presents an analysis of changes in the position of channels bottom level of the Carpathian rivers, located within the Low Beskid (Ropa, Zdynia and Przysłup). The dynamic of channels bottom level position of examined levels based on hydrological data of daily water levels, recorded in the gage sections, which are a hydrological warp of the Klimkowka reservoir. In the study used data from the period 1995–2010. Results of analysis showed that the dominant process in considered watercourses is dredging. An important process in the case of some rivers, occur periodically increasing the level of the channel bottom, caused by natural and anthropogenic factors. The results also confirm the usefulness of hydrological data in the study of changes in the position of river channels bottom.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2011, No 12, 133-136
THE INFLUENCE OF CATACYN AND BENZONAL ON CA2+ ACCUMULATING CAPACITY OF LIVER MITOCHONDRIA IN RATS INTOXICATED WITH THE VENOM OF NAJA OXIANA EICHWALD
The present work describes the influence of benzonal and catacyn (substances which are known by antihypoxic effect) on calcium transport in mitochondria of liver cells of rats intoxicated by Central Asian Cobra venom. White rats (average weight 200–230 g) were used in the experimental studies. These animals were divided into four groups. The rats from the first, second and third groups were injected with the venom of Naja oxiana at 160 g•kg-1 of weight, intramuscularly. Two minutes later the rats from the second and third groups were injected with 50 mg•kg-1 of catacyn or benzonal. The fourth group was injected with the normal saline solution. The rats were decapitated 15 min after venom injection.
It was established that after the injection of benzonal and catacyn into the rats, the Ca2+ accumulating capacity of liver mitochondria decreased. So, after the injection of 50 mg of benzonal per 1 kg of body weight the Ca2+ capacity of rat liver mitochondria dropped by 32.4% of the control level, while catacyn → caused → the drop by 26,8%. The drop of Ca2+ accumulating capacity of mitochondria by above-mentioned antihypoxants is connected with either the → inhibition of Ca2+ ion absorptive function of mitochondria, or with the increase of glycoprotein content by benzonal and catacyn, which specifically binds. Ca2+, or by their activation of ryanodine receptor. The obtained results suggested the inhibition of Ca2+ transport to mitochondria by benzonal and catacyn. It was established that under the venom of Central Asian Cobra effect the consumption of calcium ions in rat liver mitochondria increased by 68,6% from the norm. With benzonal and catacyn it constituted only 17,4% and 20,4%, respectively. It means that the benzonal and catacyn reduce the Ca2+ accumulating capacity of mitochondria, i.e. almost completely reduce the negative effect of N. oxiana venom effect.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2011, No 12, 125-131
COMPLEXATION CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMBRANE-ACTIVE CROWN-ETHERS
Unida Sharafutdinova, Uktam Toyirov, Bachtior Salakhutdinov,
Anisa Tashmukhamedova, Ulugbek Mirkhodjaev
Crown ethers are the large class of membrane-active organic compounds which are intensively studied due to their complexon, ionophoric and channel forming activity. The present study describes the investigations of the possible interactions between sulfo-derivatives of DB18C6 with ions of K+, Na+, Ca2+ in water and ethanol solutions using conductance-measuring method. The analysis of thermodynamic characteristics of interaction, particularly free Gibbs energy (G) alteration, shows that the process of interaction of crown-ethers and uni- and bivalent ions is held spontaneously. In this case the interaction is supposed to proceed due to forming ion bounds between ions of dissociated salt and charged regions of crown-ethers. The obtained results for the sulfo-derivatives of DB18C6 show no ability to form stable interactions with ions of uni- and bivalent metals neither in water nor in ethanol solutions. It allows us to make a conclusion about non-inophoric nature of investigated compounds and proves the idea of their ability to change membrane permeability by forming ion-transporting structures.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2011, No 12, 117-124
MIGRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM IN THE PROFILES OF THE TWO MAIN SOIL RECLAMATION GROUPS IN AKDALA IRRIGATION AREA
Azimbay Otarov, Bogusław Wiłkomirski
Negative influence of heavy metals on individual element of agrocenoses located on arable soils depends on soil features. The investigations of heavy metal migration have great pure and ap-plied importance. Former investigations in Akdala region have outlined four reclamation groups of soils. The division of soils into reclamation groups is based on their main genetic features – hypsometric position, lythologic structure, mechanical content and water-physical properties that define a homogeneous feature of reclamation activities in the operational period. Only two of these group have real practical importance. The first group includes mainly weak saline soils of light mechanical content located on river bed banks of the dead river beds of the Ili river and its ducts, suitable for growing all zoned crops without conducting prior reclamation activities. The second group includes saline soils with various degrees of salinity and heavy mechanical structure located on the negative elements of the relief – depression between channels and their slides and slopes, suitable for development in irrigation and conducting special land improvements under all zoned crops, especially for rice. In the area of soils belonging to the above groups the representative locations have been chosen. 32 soil profiles were selected, from which 148 soil samples were collected. In all the samples the concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined using ASA method. In the profile of both arable and virgin soils of the first reclamation group lead is distributed by the eluvial-illuvial type. Eluvial horizon, from which lead is removed is arable horizon, and illuvial where lead is accumulated is sub-arable horizon. A sub-arable illuvial horizon constitutes a geochemical barrier to lead migration in the profile of these soils. In the profile of the second reclamation group of soils, lead is distributed by the accumulative type, subtype – regressive-accumulative. The horizon of lead accumulation and geochemical barrier have heavy mechanical structure and the arable horizon is relatively rich in humus. In the profile of all the studied soils cadmium is distributed by accumulative type. There is also the horizon of cadmium accumulation, and the geochemical barrier is arable horizon relatively enriched with humus. In addition arable soils of both reclamation groups contain higher amounts of the studied metals than their virgin analogues.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2011, No 12, 103-116
ANALYSIS OF THE STATE OF MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILLS IN THE ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKIE VOIVODSHIP IN TERMS OF ECOLOGICAL REVIEW
Tomasz Kwiatkowski, Maria Żygadło
In Świętokrzyskie voivodship a total of 50 municipal landfills are located. In 2010 only 15 active municipal landfill were in operation. The total area operated landfills is approximately 40 hectares. The voivodship has continued the process of closing landfills, which do not meet the technical requirements, or their capacity has been exhausted. Administrative actions focused on objects (Tab. 2) contributed to their proper functioning. All landfill sites destined to be modernized in term 2005–2009 have been upgraded with the exception of landfill “Staszów”. These activities have also contributed indirectly to extend the service life of landfills. With the adjustment to the requirements of landfill regulations the negative impact on the environment will be minimized. The analysis of the active capacity of municipal waste landfills in operation shows that in Świętokrzyskie remained only about 3 230 920.64 m3 of free landfill capacity (as of 31.12.2009), which will ensure that the needs of the region only about 11-year period of operation. For the landfill “Staszów” fall the half of the capacity. The spoken landfill until 31.12.2010 was not adapted to the requirements of law, while it is in the process of adjustment (has a valid building permit). In the case of the closure of that landfill the remaining free capacity of total number of landfills ability to receive municipal waste in the region will decrease by approximately 50%. In addition, the landfills destinated for modernization, namely: Klępie Dolne, Wola Jastrzębska, Słupcza, Bugaj, Grabowiec, Wyszyna Machorowska, Radoszyce, Fałków, Marcinków were closed.
With regard to the closed municipal landfill in Świętokrzyskie, the process of rehabilitation, is very slowly which may serve over the years a serious threat to the environment. This particularly concerns the objects, which are located in areas threatened by flood.