Natural Environment Monitoring 2011, No 12, 93-101
SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SELECTED PHYSICO-CHEMICAL SOIL PROPERTIES IN THE CENTRAL PART OF THE ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKIE (HOLY CROSS) MOUNTAINS
Rafał Kozłowski, Edyta Adwent
In the present study, the results of research into the problem of soil acidification, conducted in the central Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains geoecosystem, have been discussed. Field research conducted in the area of the Natural Environment Integrated Monitoring Base Station at Święty Krzyż covered the top mineral horizon (0–10 cm) of rusty podsolic precipitation-andgley soil. Basing on laboratory research which covered measurements of pH in H2O and KCl, as well as Hh and Hw, it may be concluded that in the geoecosystem at issue a distinct differentiation of the horizon occurs. The spatial distribution of exchange and hydrolytic acidity, as well as soil reaction, forms a specific micromosaic around tree trunks.
The statistical testing analyses, conducted by means of the Mann-Whitney U test, have shown considerable statistical differences in pH and Hw values depending on tree trunk and species. It has been found that the acidified stemflow which runs down tree trunks most strongly affects the measured quantities within the distance of up to 50 cm.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2011, No 12, 85-91
A QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON OF WET AND TOTAL DEPOSITION IN THE CENTRAL PART OF THE ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKIE MOUNTAINS
The physico-chemical properties as well as the chemism of atmospheric precipitation affected by the pollution of atmospheric air are among the major elements which influence present-day degradation of the natural environment. It is a fact that water, apart from acting as a partner for physical reactions, is also a carrier of anthropogenic transformation of the natural environment. The present study offers a quantitative analysis of results of wet and total deposition in the years 20082009. To this end, the Eigenbrodt UNS 130 E automatic collector of wet precipitation and the Hellmann rain gauge have been used. The conducted analysis has shown significant discrepancies both in the physicochemical properties and the chemical composition of wet and total precipitation waters.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2011, No 12, 69-83
GEOECOSYSTEMS POLISH STATE – AN ASSESSMENT BASED ON SELECTED GEOINDICATORS IN THE INTEGRATED MONITORING OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
Andrzej Kostrzewski, Józef Szpikowski, Grażyna Szpikowska
Assessment of current status, trends, threats and protection of the geographical environment is the primary purpose of research carried out since 1994 under the Integrated Monitoring of the Natural Environment. Quantitative and qualitative geoindicators, compiled on the basis of stockpiled IMNE database, allow for a fuller and more comprehensive assessment of the Polish geoecosystems. In the hydrological year 2010 the IMNE research program was conducted in eight Base Stations representing different landscape zones Polish, subjected to varying degrees of changes of natural and anthropogenic pressures. The year 2010, like the previous one, was a favorable period for delivery of water to the environment, which consequently led to the reconstruction of disturbed water retention deficient rainfall in 2002–2006. Applied geoindicators confirm a number of significant changes geoecosystems improvement: reducing pollution and increasing the pH in precipitation and a decrease in sulphate concentrations in rain waters, groundwater and surface water. Present in the atmosphere nitrogen oxides increase their participation in the acidification of precipitation by decreasing the role of sulfur dioxide. Still remain the problem of nitrogen compounds in groundwater in agricultural areas, which remained after the period of intensive fertilization, and whose removal from geoecosystem may be extended for many years. Weak trends indicating decrease of nitrogen concentrations in groundwater and surface water may mean that they are potentially a risk of eutrophication of waters in the studied geoecosystems. The presented results of a proposal to develop a quantitative methodological observed landscape changes based on long observational series obtained in IMNE. The obtained results have theoretical and practical significance for the study of planning and decision-making at different levels of environmental management.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2011, No 12, 59-68
GENESIS AND FLOODS COURSE IN THE FLYSCH BYSTRZANKA CATCHMENT IN THE PERIOD 1995–2009
Floods in small streams are the subject of numerous publications, especially in recent years, when marked the increase extreme meteorological and hydrological risk. The size of the floods is related mainly with weather conditions, especially with the precipitation and the other elements e.g. the period prior the floods, the state of the catchment retention, the manner and condition of the vegetation cover, the catchment parameters and in the winter: the water content in snow or depth of the soil freeze. Studies on the genesis and floods course were conducted in the flysch Bystrzanka catchment in the period 1995–2009. The catchment location makes two relief types to interweave. These are the relief of the Carpathian Foothills and of the Beskidy Mts., controlled by geologic structures and tectonics.
The predominate type of the floods in the catchment are normal floods inducted by rainfall. The discharge with the high water level represent mean 7% of the hydrological year, are short (3,2 day) with one discharge wave, usually single. Floods which occur in the winter half year have a longer duration. It is related with the way of water supply to the main stream by the slowly snowmelt from the different and asymmetric part of the catchment. The discharge which are notice in the Bystrzanka stream are typical of the Eastern Macroregion – with the runoff predominance in the winter half year (November–April) (54%). The discharge coefficient show the complex regime, snow-rain. Analyzed period (1995–2009) in terms of the genesis, the number of floods, course, is typical in comparison to the other small stream but well reflects the environment transient from west to east and from Carpathian Foothills to Beskidy Mts.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2011, No 12, 51-58
THE ROLE OF NATURAL BARRIERS IN THE SPREAD OF TRANSPORT POLLUTION FROM THE EMISSION LINE
Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak, Bartosz Jachymczyk
The transport routes are filled with greenery in order to increase the attractiveness of the landscape, use of natural trees and shrubs for the exchange of air masses, mute noise, retention of rainwater and protection against exhaust and automotive pollution. In many situations, expressways run through, located on both sides of the roadway, natural forests complexes. The intensity of operating routes is very high, resulting in increased emissions of pollutants from complete and incomplete combustion of petroleum fuels and the friction of tires on asphalt road surface. These pollutants are: sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), tetraethyl lead, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), PAHs, aldehydes, dioxins, particulates, heavy metals, including chromium, cadmium, lead. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the role of trees growing along the expressways as a natural barrier to the spread of pollutants from the emission line. In the method bioindicator Hypogymnia phosodes – lichen indicator was used, which was transplanted at the designated points of research
Natural Environment Monitoring 2011, No 12, 147-153
ENVIRONMENTAL FEE – LEGAL OBLIGATION OR CONSCIOUS DUTY
Payment of fees for use of the environment, by their nature similar to taxes, is the responsibility of each person whose action may impact on the environment. There is a list of enumerated exemptions, but it should be – in principle – assumed, that everyone who uses the environment should be aware of its duty, properly calculate a fee and pay it in accordance with the statutory requirements. Penalty for lack of payment can be imposed by the competent authority of the government administrative. The penalty is independent of the obligation to pay the overdue fee. The liable person however has a right to appeal against a decision imposing such penalties.