Natural Environment Monitoring 2012, No 13, 81-84
FREQUENCY OF SAMPLING IN LAKE TROPHY ESTIMATION BASED ON TSI INDICES
Tomasz Lenard, Wojciech Ejankowski
Variations of biological and chemical parameters within and between years can affect negatively on lake quality assessment. The aim of this work was to determine the sampling frequency in the estimation of lake trophy using Trophic State Indices (TSI). TSI indices were calculated based on chlorophyll-a concentration, water transparency, total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations. Some options of data collection were taken into consideration. The results suggest, that sampling during two years, versus one year, ensure adequately trophy estimation. The most effective choice of the study terms should consider at least two-year period, even if only one sample will be taken every year.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2012, No 13, 105-122
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STUDIES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE
OF TWO DECADES (1992–2012)
Ewelina Kantowicz, Elżbieta Lonc
Environmental protection studies as a new interdisciplinary field of study was registrated in the year 1991 but only in w 2011 year “environmental science” was recognized as separate domain in the biological, chemical and agricultural sciences. The first environmental science studies known in Poland as Ochrona Środowiska were formed at the university natural science faculties as 5 years courses. According to the Bologna Declaration they were next changed for 3+2 system at the universities as well as in the remaining no academic schools (colleges) public (PWSZ) and no public ones. In the second decade of XXI century this field of study provided by more than 60 higher education institutions in Poland is faced to new challenges connected with the reform of higher education system, the lack of formal ministry list of field of studies and adaptation to the National Qualification Framework (KRK) based on the nationally agreed standards of knowledge, skill and competence, i.e. what student is expected to know, understand and be able to do following successful completion of a process of learning in two profiles (academic and application ones). In history retrospective the most important events were characterized since the beginning of 90. of XX century when the diverse higher education institutions and staff was accompanied with different study programs showing the great spectra of research problems with regard to the environmental science. In the article the thematic programs of twenty national annual meetings named “environmental studies at the university nature faculties” was analyzed. Those conferences were organized by the Polish universities, ie.: Uniwersytet Wrocławski (1993, 2003), Uniwersytet Jagielloński (1994) together with PWSZ in Tarnów (2004); Uniwersytet Opolski (1995, 2007); Uniwersytet Warszawski (1996, 2006); Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza (1997 and Collegium Polonicum in Słubice, 2005);
Uniwersytet Gdański (1998); Uniwersytet Marii CurieSkłodowskiej (1999); Uniwersytet im. Mikołaja Kopernika in Toruniu (2000); Uniwersytet Łódzki (2001); Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski (2002); Uniwersytet in Białystok (2008); Uniwersytet Zielonogórski (2009); Uniwersytet Śląski in Katowice (2010); Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie (2001); Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego in Kielce (2012).
Conference proceedings concerned with the organization, management and learning concepts of environmental protection studies, their quality assurances and accredidation (UKA, PKA, international cooperation, mostly within such programs as the ESSENCE, AUDES, TEMPUS i ERASMUS-LLP, were discussed
in the context of conclusions for future. They are connected with the questions of interdisciplinarity of environmental science learning changing from the diversified programs via minimal programs and tough standards towards qualification framework as well as with the research. Presence of “environmental science” as the distinct domain should enhance the third level of study. There is a urgent need the shaping of doctorate programs to the requirements of KRK as it was done in the case of graduate and undergraduate studies of environmental protection.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2012, No 13, 51-62
MACROSCOPIC CHANGES OF HYPOGYMNIA PHYSODES (L.) NYL. IN ANTROPOGENIC STRESS CONDITIONS
Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak
Apparatus monitoring allows estimation of physical and chemical parameters of examined biotopes. Toxin concentration noted by apparatus influences life in examined environment and its value. Bioindication methods supplement apparatus monitoring. They consist in singling out organisms known as biomanitors. They are sensitive to pollution and its presence allows analysis of relation in order: toxin emission rate – concentration in biotope – concentration in bioindicator. Taking everything into consideration, it seems right to supplement research with observation of type and speed of changes in bioindicators exposed to toxic substances biologically activate and answer the question: what are the symptoms of bioindicators’ reaction to environmental toxics?
The research with the use of transplanted lichens was carried out in 2004–2007. The results of the research are based on microscopic analysis of 192 twigs with lichens transplanted in conurbation. Microscopic observation was conducted with the use of scanning microscope Nicon, and QUANTA 200. Additionally, microscopic pieces with damages and colour changes underwent chemical analysis with ED-XRF microanalyzer in scanning microscope carrying out chemical analysis of thalli inside. Macroscopic analysis of Hypogymnia physodes thalli after exposition in conditions of antropogenic stress allowed to single out colouring changes. These are: whitening, browing, blackening, blackening of thalli and changes in the thalli structure.
We can observe: crumbling of rosette fragments as a result of necrosis, deforming as a result of bending an d rolling parts of rosettes, discppearance of lip sorallia and coming off the surface as a result of rippling and drying up of thalli.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2012, No 13, 41-50
THERMAL STRESS DIVERSITY DURING HEAT WAVES IN THE KIELECKA UPLAND IN THE BEGINNING OF XXI CENTURY
The topic of a study was the diversity of the hot weather occurrence in the Kielce Upland, Central Poland, in the beginning of XXI century. Diversity of the thermal sensation of a man during heat waves was discussed too. The thermal sensation was estimated with use of the effective temperature (TE) which joins the influence of the air temperature and humidity together with wind speed on the man. Eight heat waves, defined as at least 3 consecutive days with tmax>30.0°C, has occurred in wide valleys and low plateaus of the Kielce Upland since the beginning of XXI century. This number was similar to values in adjacent regions. The longest heat wave registered in the Kielce lasted 12 days, since 18th till 29th July 2006. Heat waves were virtually absent atop the Świętokrzyskie Mts., the highest part of the Kielce Upland. The thermal stress was less intense there as compared to lower areas. However the thermal sensation class “very hot” could appear there during hot weather periods too as a consequence of higher air humidity and lower wind speed. The thermal stress was bigger in the Kielce’s downtown when compared to the city’s peripheries, especially in the evening and at night. It also appeared that biometeorological conditions could be less favourable in rooms without air conditioning than outdoors.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2012, No 13, 31-40
PARTICULATE MATTER COMPOSITION AT PUSZCZA BORECKA STATION TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ANTHROPOGENIC AND NATURAL EMISSION SOURCES INFLUENCE
Anna Degórska, Tomasz Śnieżek
Particulate matter content is formed both by anthropogenic and natural sources. Important role plays not only primary emission but also precursors emission (especially for fine fraction). The article describes PM emission sources as well as spatial variability of primary emission and precursors emission in European Union. Chemical analysis was conducted for fine particles (diameter less than 2,5 μm) and coarse particles (diameter less than 10 μm), taken at Puszcza Borecka Integrated Monitoring Station (owned by Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute). The difference between fine and coarse fraction composition has been investigated, showing the main components for each of them. Chemical composition was brought together with air masses direction and the authors tried to show PM origin sources.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2012, No 13, 23-30
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SURFACE WATER IN UPPER PART OF LESK STREAM
Krzysztof Chudy, Magdalena Bajor, Aneta Chudy
In 1990, Polish coal mining was restructured due to change in geological law, resulting in the closure of the Lower Silesia Coal Region. After closure, the mines were flooded. This process caused changes in the ground water and surface water environment. The aim of this article is to evaluate surface water quality parameters The research area is located in the upper part of the Lesk Stream catchment area and in the Czerwony Stream catchment area (Wałbrzych part of Lower Silesia Coal Region). This area has been subjected to environmental stress from mining from the middle ages to the 1990s