Satellite monitoring of the environment on a regional scale: Western Pomerania in the years 2000–2015
Satellite remote sensing for many years has been the most important source of knowledge about the state and trends of environmental changes on Earth. However,
the use of recording made from satellites to monitor the environment on a local or regional scale was limited. The situation has changed signifcantly by entering
into service in 2000 and 2002 of two satellites Terra and Aqua equipped with MODIS spectroradiometer. It allows to record the characteristics of the surface of the planet twice a day in 36 spectral channels with a resolution of 0.25–1 km. The aim was the assessment of trends in the environment of Western Pomerania in the years 2000–2015 on the basis of data from the MODIS sensor. This area is highly diverse both in natural and economic conditions, including large urban areas, areas
intensively used for agriculture, forest plantations as well as valuable, legally protected natural objects: national parks, lakes, protected landscape areas, etc.
In this work we used land surface temperature (LST), and the state of vegetation indexes NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation) and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation
Index). We analyzed trends in both long-term average values, as well as the characteristics of seasonal cycle. The study was based on the 8 days average values of LST
for the day and the night, and the 16 days average value of NDVI and EVI from March 2000 to February 2016. The analysis covered an area of approximately 35.500
km2. The novelty was the use of so-called contextual Mann-Kendall test. It is based on the assumption that the trends between adjacent pixels should exhibit autocorrelation and reduces false detection of trends and increase the confdence of the results when trends are spatially coherent. Analysis of seasonal trends consist of two stages. In the frst the annual and shorter components of the seasonal cycle was ftted using harmonic regression. In the second stage by means of non-parametric technique of median slope were determined parameters trends of cycles (amplitude and phase). This methodology effectively eliminates high frequency noise that occurs in the scale of a single year and it is resistant to short-term variability between years. Also in this procedure the contextual Mann-Kendall test was used. The calculations showed the presence in the analyzed period and analyzed area of signifcant trends in both LST, and NDVI / EVI indicators of biomass. That concern both the averages and seasonal cycle parameters. Spatial distribution of trends shows variability in two spatial scales: local and regional. Multi-annual LST trends were recorded surprisingly only for the night measurements. They are only increase. They include over 56% of the study area and their spatial distribution is not random. On a regional scale they primarily include higher-lying moraine areas. Much less frequently they are listed in the Noteć and Odra valleys and the lowlands along the shore of the Baltic Sea. It has been found both increments (approx. 28% of the area) and decreases (approx. 10%) of the average values of plant biomass (NDVI and EVI). About 70% of the high increases of the two indicators is shared, indicating both an increase in the amount of chlorophyll (NDVI), leaf area, and changes in the type and physiognomy of plant community (EVI). The spatial distribution trends of biomass indicators also showed regional variation, but it is more complicated than in the case of LST. Analysis of the seasonal cycles characteristics showed that on the areas of statistically signifcant changes, they relates to both the decrease in the annual amplitude and phase shift – a faster onset of the growing season in the spring. Identifcation of the relationship between the characteristics of the surface, LST changes and indicators of biomass enables the identifcation of areas that should be subjected to a more elaborate test – hotspots of environmental imbalance.
Natural environment pollution of Gardno Lake catchment (Woliński National Park) based on biotic monitoring research of Integrated Monitoring of the Natural Environment programme
Mariusz Samołyk, Paweł Czyryca
Based on the results of eight years (2009–2016) of monitoring studies conducted in the catchment area of Gardno Lake, the measure of pollution of Woliński National Park the natural environment was rated. An important indicator in determining the state of the natural environment is the extent and causes of damage to trees and tree stands. The dynamics and chemistry of the organic fall was checked. Using bioindication properties of lichenes the measurements of thalli area and health of Hypogymnia physodes, Melanelixia fuliginosa, Parmelia sulcata, Pertusaria amara, Phlyctis argena were conducted. In Hypogymnia physodes the concentration of heavy metals and sulfur was checked. Biocenotic indicators (eg Simpson dominance index and Shanonna-Weaver diversity index) were determined on the basis of quantitative and qualitative changes taking place in the structures of invertebrate assemblages. Detailed inventory of Gardno Lake cachment revealed the presence of five invasive plants species: Impatiens parviﬂora, Padus serotina, Reynoutria japonica, Quercus rubra, Rosa rugosa.
Impact of municipal landfll on the nickel content in surrounding soils
Katarzyna Matuszczak, Agata Bartkowiak, Hanna Jaworska, Szymon Różański
Possibility of nitrate monitoring in water based on mollusc bioindicative reaction
Joanna Chmist, Krzysztof Szoszkiewicz
The most municipal waterworks in Poland utilise surface water resources which requires precise monitoring of its quality. An effcient pollution removal is still a common problem causing delivery of water of inadequate quality parameters. The periodic control of water parameters does not eliminate all of possible risks and only the use of continuous monitoring system of water adequately protected against possible distribution of contaminated water. For several years, the instrumental methods of water quality monitoring are often supported biological monitoring and the most common are systems using mollusc. The paper presents results of experiment utilising the Unio tumidus species, whose natural reaction to sudden changes of environment parameters is shell closing. The impact of nitrate pollution was tested, and the four different
concentrations of nitrates was applied: 4, 10, 50 and 100 mg/l. The degree of shells opening was controlled as well as the average time of complete closure caused
by pollution was estimated. It has been shown that animal reaction is strong and distinct, and Unio tumidus resistance to short-term high nitrate concentrations proves that they are a very good indicator species.
Occurrence of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in mosses in Kozienicki Landscape Park and Tatra National Park
Ryszard Świetlik, Marzena Trojanowska, Artur Molik
Heavy metal pollution is regarded as one of the most serious threats to the natural environment and also as a factor contributing to a poor condition of the forests. In Poland, combustion in manufacturing industry and in the municipal and residential sectors is mainly responsible for the release of heavy metals into the air. In the case of Pb and Zn an important role is played also by production processes and, in the case of Ni, combustion in energy and transformation industries as well. Biomonitors are often used to study the immission of heavy metals and their deposition in forest areas. Due to their omnipresence, characteristic structure and high tolerance of pollution, mosses turned out to be particularly useful for evaluation of heavy metal deposition in forest areas, particularly Pleurozium schreberi (Schreber’s moss) which is very common in those areas. The aim of this study was to examine the content of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb) in mosses occurring in Kozienice Landscape Park (KLP) and Tatra National Park (TNP) and to evaluate the pollution by the heavy metals of the two forest areas. Three moss species were used: Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens and Polytrichum commune. Moss samples were collected from fve sites in KLP (including three nature reserves): Źródła Królewskie, Miodne and Załamanek
as well as Poborskie Łąki and Kozie Ługi. In the TNP area the samples were collected from three valleys: Dolina Lejowa, Dolina Chochołowska and Dolina Białego.
The mean metal content in the green parts of the mosses forms a decreasing order: Zn > Pb ≈ Cu > Ni which is similar to the order formed by emission levels of these metals in Poland: Zn (1447 Mg/year) > Pb (543 Mg/year) > Cu (368 Mg/year) > Ni (179 Mg/year). The contents of heavy metals in Pleurosium schreberi samples collected in the three TNP valleys do not differ signifcantly but the heavy metal content in the samples from Załamanek and Miodne nature reserves is considerably higher than in the other KLP areas. Taking into account the local factors, road traffc emission can be pointed out as a potential source of anthropopressure. Comparing the obtained values of the content of heavy metal with the literature data for other forest areas, the heavy metal emission hazard for the investigated TNP and KLP areas can be regarded as
relatively low. However, it is worth noting that the level of zinc was slightly higher in the Pleurozium schreberi samples (TNP – av. 94.9 mg/kg d.w. and KLP – 88.4 mg/kg d.w.).