Variability of physicochemical properties of throughfall in the pine stands in Western Pomerania and Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Białe Zagłębie)
Rafał Kozłowski, Robert Kruszyk
The study presents the results of research conducted in the years 2010–2013 in pine stands in Western Pomerania and Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Białe Zagłębie). The study was conducted in pine stands located in two geoekosystems under the inﬂuence of varying the intensity of local and remote industrial immission. In spite of water loss via interception, the annual average load of ions under the canopy in both stands exceeded that in bulk precipitation. This is the result of the ongoing process of leaching and washout of dry-deposited elements. The total load of ions recorded in the pine stands 126.45 kg•ha-1•yr-1 (Malik) and 47.14 kg•ha-1•yr-1 (Czarne) exceeded the value
observed for the bulk precipitation nearly twice – 74.25 kg•ha-1•yr-1 (Malik) and 23.46 kg•ha-1•yr-1 (Czarne). In both stands the highest enrichment as expressed by the
enrichment factor was recorded for potassium, at 7.0 (Malik) and 5.8 (Czarne)
ORGANIC FALL AS BIOINDICATOR OF GEOECOSYSTEMS CONDITION
Marek Jóźwiak, Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak, Rafał Kozłowski
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Key words: bioindycators, organic fall, geoecosystem
In two multi-species forest stands of different age, in an undeveloped climax fir-hornbeam-beech forest and in a beech forest with the immature fir-trees similar to a transitional forest type, the organic fall mass was similar during the research period. However, they fundamentally differed in the composition of assimilative organs which dominated in the fall. This phenomenon has plays a significant role in formation of different humus types in the soil. With a diverse age of forest stands a mosaic character of organic layers is connected.
From its content conditions types and sub-types of the soil humus. In the fir-hormbeam-beech stands the humus mosaics of the dendromorphic character are found; from the xeromorphic type of the thickness 15–20 cm under long-standing fir-tress to the non-contiguous layer of the fresh moder and fresh moder-mull of the thickness 2–3 cm to 0 cm under deciduous tree crowns. However, in the beech stand a uniform leaf cover of the thickness upto 10 cm with the humus of the moder- -mull type was found. It was found that the quality of the organic fall and connected with it types of soil humus are controlled more by biological feature of tree species prevailing in the forest stand individually or collectively than by their variety. It confirms hypotheses of Grime (1997) and Kutch et al. (2002). In the nearest neighbourhood two different forest stands cause the overlaying on the same soil type, by their fall, differently in arranged and changing with the forest stand soil subtypes and variations of soils subtypes.