Heavy metals content in the snow cover in the Holy Cross Mountains
Rafał Kozłowski, Mirosław Szwed
This paper presents the results of research on snow collected in January 2016 in the Swietokrzyskie Mountains. A total of 12 samples were taken from 3 different places: Kielce city, Swietokrzyski National Park and regional industry of active cement-lime sites around Kielce region. The analyses were conducted with the use of ICP-MS-TOF. Among the trace elements the
dominating were Fe 88.5 µg.dm-3, Zn 54.0 µg.dm-3, Al 15.5 µg.dm-3 and Mn 14.9 µg.dm-3.
The role of natural disturbances in the dynamics of protected forests
Zbigniew Maciejewski, Jerzy Szwagrzyk
The topic of our study was process of spontaneous regeneration in secondary mixed forest stand growing on a fertile habitat before and after extensive blowdown. The object of the research was the windfall located in the Roztocze National Park; the windfall of a size of about 2.5 ha was created in August 2008 as a result of hurricane. Inside the current windfall area there was a 0.5-ha permanent research plot, where long-term research on spontaneous regeneration of secondary forest stands has been conducted since 1973. Therefore we could compare trends in natural forest regeneration before and after the windfall. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the occurrence of windfall substantially changed the direction of regeneration processes and strongly accelerated the rate of changes. During the last decades before disturbance the tree stand studied was in the phase of spontaneous regeneration towards a potential natural community from Fagetalia sylvaticae order, typical for rich and well-drained habitats of the oak-hornbeam community in the Roztocze National Park. Species with greater light requirements Scotch pine Pinus sylvestris, aspen Populus tremula and oaks Quercus robur and Quercus petraea, ecologically alien to the potential plant community, retreat from the tree and shrub
layers. The share of tree species typical of the potential community European beech Fagus sylvatica, European
hornbeam Carpinus betulus, sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus slowly increased in the tree layer. In August 2008 a tornado broke or up-rooted almost 60% of all trees and damaged many others on the area near to 2.5 hectares. There is a group of tree species actually beneft from the blowdown. Apart from a true pioneer species, like willows aspen or Scotch pine, there are also sycamore maple and European beech – the species abundantly present in the forest regenerations before the tornado. To this group belongs also the European hornbeam which rapidly regenerate both in generative
and vegetative way (as offshoots of downed trees). In light of the obtained results the role of light-demanding (pioneer) species in regeneration of the windthrow gaps in a fertile habitat appears to be transient.
Międzyzdroje-Gosań tourist trail (Wolin National Park) – protection against excessive anthropopressure, tourists’ safety, monitoring of the natural environment.
Nature conservation is one of important emotional needs of mankind. There is no doubt that conservation areas (eg. national parks) are very attractive touristically. But it is impossible to avoid the negative effects of adapting the areas of national parks for tourism. Excessive development of tourism and related infrastructure in Woliński National Park endangers environment of this region. However it is impossible to deny access to the protected area because the tourist function is an integral function a national park. Effective environmental policy pursued by national park depends on systematic monitoring of its condition and the degree of human pressure.
Atmospheric pollutants total and wet deposition in the Kampinos Base Integrated Monitoring Station in years 2011 and 2012
Tomasz Śnieżek, Adam Olszewski
The pollution emitted into the atmosphere in anthropogenic processes is then transported and reaches ecosystems often distant from the sources of emission. Such emissions are one of the reasons for changes, and often degradation, of the natural environment. Research into this phenomenon is one of the ways to try and fnd measures to improve the condition of the environment in which we all live. Background Stations of the Integrated Environmental Monitoring System, operated as the Nature Protection subsystem of the State Environment Monitoring Program (ZMŚP), are used to measure the concentration levels and pollution loads that reach the ground. This paper contains an analysis and summary of the results of total and wet deposition of selected pollutants in atmospheric precipitation collected at the Kampinos Base Station in 2011–2013. The precipitation during that period was collected simultaneously in the total precipitation collector and the wet precipitation collector. The amount of precipitation was measured twofold: with a standard Hellmann rain gauge and on the basis of a sample collected in the wet precipitation collector.
The monitoring of nature and environmental restoration projects as the basis for effective conservation and performance of natural systems
This paper describes the conditions, concepts and demands of monitoring actions designed for the purpose of ecological restoration projects. Such a monitoring should provide necessary input and feedback for the purpose of adaptive project management, should document ecological results (which, however, usually will be evident much later after the project end), and should provide the scientifc evidence for conservation actions on similar objects elsewhere. It is argued, that the monitoring of restoration projects should be applied more to dynamic processes and functions, than to the biotic structures, as it usually is done in the standardised procedures of monitoring of ecological/conservation statuses. As each restoration action made in natural or seminatural ecosystems is unique at least to some extent, the essential primary monitoring effort is to construct an ecological model (conceptual, qualitative, or quantitative, depending on data availability and the specifc objectives of a project), considering the direct and indirect predicted effects of measures provided, and then to fnd the best available, rapid and cost-effcient indicators for checking eco-evolutionary trajectories of
targeted populations and ecosystems. Three monitoring phases are distinguished: initial (pre-investment, with feasibility evaluation of the proposed actions, building a functional model and indicator systems), during restoration actions (feedback, adaptation and minimizing unwanted side effects), and post restoration (the evidence of results and providing the background for post-project maintenance). Some important general concepts and methodologies for the design of a project monitoring are described, based mostly on the most recent literature sources. As most desirable ecological restoration objectives usually are described in structural terms (indicators of
good ecological/conservation status), there is a need to translate them into dynamic and functional objectives and processes. This should serve the most appropriate
monitoring design and evaluation of results before the improvement of structural parameters, expected in some future. Also, it is important to adequately relate the specifc functional project monitoring to standard biological monitoring programmes, integrated ecological monitoring, and scientifc research in the felds of general, conservation and restoration ecology.