The impact of atmospheric circulation on the transport and wet deposition of pollutants in low mountains and foothills of Central Europe
Witold Bochenek, Rafał Kozłowski, Marek Jóźwiak
Air pollutants can be emitted from local, mainly domestic sources, or transported from industrial sites located 100–200 km away. The type of atmospheric circulation and air masses plays a signifcant role in the second case. It is a decisive factor affecting the amount of precipitation and the volume of gases and particulates deposited in a given area. This article provides the frst attempt to compare the pH and conductivity (SEC) results from two monitoring stations within a distance
of 136 km; however, exposed to pollution from different sources. The central aim of the paper is to determine the impact of the type of atmospheric circulation and air masses on precipitation amount, pH and conductivity. The research was conducted in 2004–2009 in the two base stations of the Integrated Monitoring of the Natural Environment network: Święty Krzyż in the central part of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains and Szymbark in the Low Beskid. Regression models based on the
number of particular circulation types and monthly mean pH and SEC values indicate the inﬂuence of the frequency of synoptic situations on precipitation physicochemical parameters. In Szymbark there was a positive relationship between the concentration of H+ and south-easterly anticyclonic (SEa), southwesterly anticyclonic (SWa) and southerly cyclonic
(Sc) situations and a negative one with anticyclonic wedge or ridge of high pressure (Ka) and through of low pressure (Bc) situations. The values of the parameter at the Święty Krzyż station were positively affected by westerly anticyclonic (Wa) circulation and negatively by central anticyclone (Ca), as well as Ka and Sc situations. The same circulation type induced
the concentration of H+ in a different manner during winter and summer half-year. Conductivity measured in Szymbark was signifcantly negatively related only to north-easterly anticyclonic (NEc) and Bc circulation types and positively – to northerly anticyclonic (Na) situation. The same parameter showed a strong seasonal variability in Święty Krzyż. It might have resulted
from varying intensity of production processes in the cement plants located in the area of “Białe Zagłębie” (White District) in the SEa and southerly anticyclonic (Sa) synoptic situations, or heightened fuel combustion in winter (easterly cyclonic – Ec circulation). In Szymbark the most distinctive positive relationship was noted between SEC and the arctic air masses (PA),
while a negative one – with maritime polar (PPm) and tropical (PZ) masses. A strong positive correlation was registered between SEC and the frequency of warm maritime polar masses (PPmc) at the Święty Krzyż station, where a negative trend was observed during the prevalence of various air masses (rmp). The analysis of temporal variability and the impact of different types of circulation and air masses on precipitation pH and SEC indicates that there are both congruent as well as contradictory tendencies at the two monitoring stations. Relatively nearby localities are under the inﬂuence of different emission sources in terms of direction and distance to the source. Local domestic sources are more important than remote industrial sites situated in Slovakia for the air quality in Szymbark. Physicochemical parameters of precipitation in Święty
Krzyż were affected mainly by the cumulated pollution from Upper Silesia and northern part of the Czech Republic (Ostrava-Karviná Coal Basin).
Inﬂuence of xantoria parietina secondary metabolites on the development of fungi from organic ground: natural rubber and acrylic dispersion
Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak, Przemysław Rybiński, Marek Jóźwiak
Anatomic dualism of lichens and mutual metabolic interaction between mycelium and lichen cells leads to synthesis specifc substances which are generally named lichen acids. Lichen acids are the secondary metabolites produced during metabolic reactions. During the photosynthesis process carbohydrates are produced by the photobiont cells and transferred to the
mycelium. With the use of metabolic transformation of shikimic and mevalonic acids and acetylpolymalonate the carbohydrates are transformed to the secondary metabolites. Lichen acids are chemically and functionally diversifed group of organic compounds. The classifcation divides them onto two groups: aliphatic and acyclic colourless compounds and aromatic lichen substances. Phulvinic acids derivatives, depsides, depsidones,chinones, xanthone derivates and dibenzo are them. These compounds demonstrate a great chemical activity. Chemical activity of these compounds causes signifcantly
reactivity and activation of many species but in many cases their inhibitory properties are found. These compounds inﬂuence on the following organism: bacteria, viruses, bryophyes, fungi, vascular plants, and lichens. Among the secondary lichen
metabolites, the most activity are: usin acid, derivatives of phulvinic acid, depsides, depsidones of orcin group, and aliphatic acids. Their role is not explained fully but certainly they take part in the inter-species interaction determined as a lichen multualism. The aim of the study was to present the inhibited properties of pharatientic acid extracted from Xantoria parietina thallus on the mycelium of Mucor mucedo. It has been shown that the pharatientic acid extracted from Xantoria parietina
thallus inﬂuence on the sensitivity of mycelium of Mucor mucedo. Obtaining results indicate on the possibility of the using the pharatientic acids towards mycelium which are evolved on the organic ground.
Inﬂuence of selected environmental factors on changes in land cover and land use in the Carpathian Bystrzanka catchment
The study analyzed the impact of slope exposure, gradient and altitudes on changes in land use and land cover in the small Carpathian catchment (Bystrzanka). The studies has shown the typical changes observed in other areas of the Beskid Mts. (Western Carpathians), ie. a decrease in arable land area and an increase in grasslands and forest area (in the period 1969– 2010). There has been observed a direct relationship between the slope and forest area, and vice versa in
the cultivated land. In addition, in 2010, in all altitudes ranges observed increase of forest and grassland areas (especially of old areas agriculture used) and a decrease in arable land. There were no clear effect of slope exposure on land use changes in last 40 years.
Heavy metals content in the snow cover in the Holy Cross Mountains
Rafał Kozłowski, Mirosław Szwed
This paper presents the results of research on snow collected in January 2016 in the Swietokrzyskie Mountains. A total of 12 samples were taken from 3 different places: Kielce city, Swietokrzyski National Park and regional industry of active cement-lime sites around Kielce region. The analyses were conducted with the use of ICP-MS-TOF. Among the trace elements the
dominating were Fe 88.5 µg.dm-3, Zn 54.0 µg.dm-3, Al 15.5 µg.dm-3 and Mn 14.9 µg.dm-3.
The role of natural disturbances in the dynamics of protected forests
Zbigniew Maciejewski, Jerzy Szwagrzyk
The topic of our study was process of spontaneous regeneration in secondary mixed forest stand growing on a fertile habitat before and after extensive blowdown. The object of the research was the windfall located in the Roztocze National Park; the windfall of a size of about 2.5 ha was created in August 2008 as a result of hurricane. Inside the current windfall area there was a 0.5-ha permanent research plot, where long-term research on spontaneous regeneration of secondary forest stands has been conducted since 1973. Therefore we could compare trends in natural forest regeneration before and after the windfall. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the occurrence of windfall substantially changed the direction of regeneration processes and strongly accelerated the rate of changes. During the last decades before disturbance the tree stand studied was in the phase of spontaneous regeneration towards a potential natural community from Fagetalia sylvaticae order, typical for rich and well-drained habitats of the oak-hornbeam community in the Roztocze National Park. Species with greater light requirements Scotch pine Pinus sylvestris, aspen Populus tremula and oaks Quercus robur and Quercus petraea, ecologically alien to the potential plant community, retreat from the tree and shrub
layers. The share of tree species typical of the potential community European beech Fagus sylvatica, European
hornbeam Carpinus betulus, sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus slowly increased in the tree layer. In August 2008 a tornado broke or up-rooted almost 60% of all trees and damaged many others on the area near to 2.5 hectares. There is a group of tree species actually beneft from the blowdown. Apart from a true pioneer species, like willows aspen or Scotch pine, there are also sycamore maple and European beech – the species abundantly present in the forest regenerations before the tornado. To this group belongs also the European hornbeam which rapidly regenerate both in generative
and vegetative way (as offshoots of downed trees). In light of the obtained results the role of light-demanding (pioneer) species in regeneration of the windthrow gaps in a fertile habitat appears to be transient.
Międzyzdroje-Gosań tourist trail (Wolin National Park) – protection against excessive anthropopressure, tourists’ safety, monitoring of the natural environment.
Nature conservation is one of important emotional needs of mankind. There is no doubt that conservation areas (eg. national parks) are very attractive touristically. But it is impossible to avoid the negative effects of adapting the areas of national parks for tourism. Excessive development of tourism and related infrastructure in Woliński National Park endangers environment of this region. However it is impossible to deny access to the protected area because the tourist function is an integral function a national park. Effective environmental policy pursued by national park depends on systematic monitoring of its condition and the degree of human pressure.