Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 69-77
THE IMPACT OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE FROM CZĘSTOCHOWA AGGLOMERATION ON ACIDITY DEGREE OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.
BARK OF „ZIELONA GÓRA” AND „SOKOLE GÓRY” NATURE RESERVES (WYŻYNA KRAKOWSKO-CZĘSTOCHOWSKA)
The aim of the research was to conduct a quantitative evaluation of the level of air pollution with sulphur dioxide in nine districts of Częstochowa city during autumn-winter (from October to March) and summer season (from July to September) as well as to identify the main emission source of this compound. The location of Częstochowa agglomeration is not favourable due to surrounding industrial areas which emit the largest volume of gas pollution within a year, in particular Bełchatów Poviat (from the northern side), the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (from the southern side) and the Małopolskie Voivodeship, which however is not situated in the direct vicinity to the city (from the south-eastern side).
The measurements of SO2 concentration in air at the area of Częstochowa agglomeration were conducted in a form of a continuous monitoring and the SO2 concentration values at the individual research stations were determined for each month. The measurements were taken with passive samplers and four samplers were exposed at each research station. The concentration of the compound was determined on the basis of the mass of released compound, exposition time and calibration constants (Pyta, Dymecki 2006).
The highest sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations at practically most of the research stations located in the Częstochowa city were noted in winter season, mainly in January and December whereas the lowest in summer season and in October. The highest SO2 concentration during autumn-winter and summer research cycle occurred at the research station situated in the vicinity of the city’s largest pollution emitter – „Częstochowa Steelworks” and in the eastern part of the city, namely in two districts with low-rise buildings: Lisiniec and Dźbów. The contamination of the districts with lowrise buildings during winter time was related with burning large amount of materials with sulphur content in household furnaces.
The most strongly affecting emitter on „Zielona Góra” and „Sokole Góry” forest areas was
„Częstochowa” steelworks. „Zielona Góra” reserve that is situated at the administrative border of Częstochowa is characterized strong acidulation of biological material, which was reflected by low value of pH Pinus sylvestris bark.