Natural EnvironmentMonitoring 2005, No 6, 59-70
THE COMPOSITION OF MACRO- AND MICROELEMENTS IN SIZE FRACTIONS OF GENETIC HORIZONS OF SOILS DEVELOPED FROM VARIOUS MOTHER–ROCKS OF EASTERN POLAND
In the years 1977-1988, in the contemporary Chair of the Soil Science of Agricultural University in Lublin, the multidirectional research on the chemical composition and proprieties of each grain size fraction separated from 6 profiles of typical soils of Eastern Poland was carried out (Fig. 1). The effect of this research was, among others, the elaboration and publication of detailed characteristics of several macro – and microelements (Fe, Ti, V, Pb, Mn, B, Al). However, due to external factors the research was not completed then. Taking into account a wide range of data obtained from this experiment, we present in this paper the research results for all determined elements (Tables 2-7). Simultaneously, this work is a kind of announcement of detailed elaborations that will be published separately for every element in the future. The scope of these elaborations will be similar to the above mentioned first one. Within the presented paper we will emphasize the most essential elements of the research results which can be summarized as follows:
The soil profiles developed from different mother-rocks showed an essential influence of the mother-rock factor on the chemism of separated fractions. The analysis of the research results on the example of iron and aluminium, confirms a significant role of these elements in processes of the soil profile formation. The results confirm partially an argument of Le Riche who points out distinct differences in actions of these elements during soil formations processes. The iron, after the activation, shifts mostly in the form of hydrated oxides. On the opposite, the aluminium usually stays in a form of amorphous aluminosilicates . this is why the most of the mass of Al is bounded in particles of greater diameter (small dust). The research confirmed a significant role of pH of the environment in a course of these processes. In the acid reaction environment the iron mobility increased. The review of the whole obtained results (Tables 2-7) shows that in the case of most marked elements, their secondary accumulation is connected with a colloidal fraction. Departures from this rule (aluminium, titanium) are not accidental but result from their geochemical dissimilarities. The attempts of estimation of negative anthropogenic changes on the example of the occurrence and reaction of the lead in the soil did not proved distinct signs of biogenic accumulation of this element in soil horizons. In comparison to the mother-rock the fall of the lead content was observed in genetic horizons of all examined profiles. The results confirm a controversial opinion about ambiguous influence of the reaction (pH) on the dissolubility and mobility of the lead in the soil environment. The composition of graphic forms of counts proposed by Le Riche confirms partly the argument of this author about the geochemical affinity of some elements to the iron but other to the aluminium (Fig. 2). One can infer that realization of similar elaborations (graphs) for all elements will contribute to deepen our knowledge on these problems.