Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2003, No 4, 31-55
METHODS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY AND SUBSTANCES DEPOSITION STATES EVALUATION IN THE MONITORING OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS
The atmospheric air pollution, especially a long-term influence of its deposition in ecosystems, influences consequently the substances circulation, vitality and biodiversity of organisms and the state of soils and waters. The possible exact quantification of entire deposition has a large practical meaning for the ecosystem management. Moreover, it is a priority task within the forest monitoring.
In the paper there were presented presently used notions and definitions describing basic processes and paths of various substances load into forest ecosystems. Additionally, two basic methods of balancing the total deposition were described. Interdependences and relationships recognized on the basis of data obtained from a long term monitoring in German forests revealed the insufficiency in balancing of results of only measurable deposits to estimate the total atmospheric deposition. Measured sizes of partial depositions should be supplemented with models of balancing of the total deposition in the tree crown space or with resistance models that will take into account all over-ground forest elements. The spatiotemporal variability of the forest ecosystem diversity, with incomplete knowledge of factors differentiating deposition in the ecosystem, conditions the way of handling the received results as objectiveised approximations. It is known, that between forest areas, and also even between bio-groups within the forest stand, there exist significant differentiations in loads of depositions. Constantly changing environmental conditions, and connected with their dynamics depositions from the air that change sequently, urge us to continue and develop the forest monitoring. Presented elements of the contemporary knowledge on methods of balancing deposits in forests can be helpful to accelerate progresses in the described research area .