Macroscopic changes of Hypogymnia Physodes (l.) Nyl. in antropogenic stress conditions

Natural Environment Monitoring 2012, No 13, 51-62


Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak



Apparatus monitoring allows estimation of physical and chemical parameters of examined biotopes. Toxin concentration noted by apparatus influences life in examined environment and its value. Bioindication methods supplement apparatus monitoring. They consist in singling out organisms known as biomanitors. They are sensitive to pollution and its presence allows analysis of relation in order: toxin emission rate – concentration in biotope – concentration in bioindicator. Taking everything into consideration, it seems right to supplement research with observation of type and speed of changes in bioindicators exposed to toxic substances biologically activate and answer the question: what are the symptoms of bioindicators’ reaction to environmental toxics?
The research with the use of transplanted lichens was carried out in 2004–2007. The results of the research are based on microscopic analysis of 192 twigs with lichens transplanted in conurbation. Microscopic observation was conducted with the use of scanning microscope Nicon, and QUANTA 200. Additionally, microscopic pieces with damages and colour changes underwent chemical analysis with ED-XRF microanalyzer in scanning microscope carrying out chemical analysis of thalli inside. Macroscopic analysis of Hypogymnia physodes thalli after exposition in conditions of antropogenic stress allowed to single out colouring changes. These are: whitening, browing, blackening, blackening of thalli and changes in the thalli structure.
We can observe: crumbling of rosette fragments as a result of necrosis, deforming as a result of bending an d rolling parts of rosettes, discppearance of lip sorallia and coming off the surface as a result of rippling and drying up of thalli.