Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2003, No 4, 99-106
SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE THROUGHFALL IN THE FIR-BEECH FOREST STAND IN THE CENTRAL PART OF THE ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKIE MOUNTAINS
Due to unequal distribution of the precipitation penetrating through tree crowns, the experiment aiming at identification of the spatial distribution of the precipitation reaching soils in a forest geoecosystem of the central part of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains. The research was carried out from 1st August to 31st October 2002.
The research carried out in the examined geoecosystem revealed a significant participation of humid deposition in quantity of water that reaches the forest bottom in a form of the throughfall. The intensity of this process is influenced not only by the species composition but also by configuration and topography of the area and prevalent meteorological conditions. The spatial variability of the hydrogen load delivered to soils shows that there exist areas in the forest bottom which are subject of acidic deposition. The quantity of this deposition significantly differs from the average level. The highest loads under the fir-tree crowns contribute to the fastest acidification of soils in the tree trunk surrounding.
The distribution of parameters obtained during the research shows the need of elaborating a detailed chart of spatial differentiation of the throughfall.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2003, No 4, 9-22
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING IN THE ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKI REGION IN THE 10TH ANNIVERSARY OF ITS INAUGURATION
Marek Jóźwiak, Alojzy Kowalkowski
The best indicator of the environment condition is the ecosystem itself. In the paper the organization and tasks of the Integrated Environmental Monitoring in Poland were described on the background of the European organization of International Cooperative Programme (ICP) on Integrated Monitoring. In conceptional principles there was realized a scientific concept and rational localization of the monitoring station of the Świętokrzyska Academy in the area of the Świętokrzyski National Park. The effects of ecological emissions in the examined forest ecosystem were discussed on the basis of 10-year monitoring results of the forest-agricultural river basin geoecosystem. The results of the integrated monitoring are used in the managerial practice. Additionally, they will form a basis for development of environmental indicators for establishing rational sustainable management of ecosystems. Within 10 years there was established a significant cooperation with national and international environmental monitoring centers. Furthermore, many meaningful publications were edited. Educational work and activities promoting these achievements were performed, too.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2003, No 4, 117-133
MONITORING OF THE CULTURAL EARTH SURFACE FORMATION OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES SINCE THE MOST ANCIENT TIMES
In Poland the basic tasks of the State Environmental Monitoring include the research on the dynamics of each element of the environment. However, in this system there was not included the monitoring of chosen land areas which hold signs of cultural changes. Such monitoring should be carried out in areas of different activities of the man. It is difficult to discuss the strategy of sustainable development which does not include all environmental elements. Especially, that according to Brower (1975) no more than 1/10 of the Earth areas remains univaded by the man.
Discussing the problem of the cultivation (cultivare) and the recultivation the author did not avoid the historic aspect of this problem. This was the reason why in the publication numerous examples of development of the human environment concept from the time of the Neolithic and of the Palaeolith until the present day were discussed (Strzemiński, 1958). In addition, examples of reclamation and formations of exploitation areas of mineral deposits were presented (Stawicki, 2002).
In the paper the author discuss this problem presenting new examples of the protection of the biologically active surface of the Earth eg.:
- The all-Polish competition on the management of palaeontological excavations areas (year 2002); one of the participants projected an original route along various geological sightseeing sites called „The Time Path”,
- Problems of exploitation and reclamation of sulphurs deposits in the Kielce region,
- Reclamation and formation of mountainous areas – Jamaica ,
- Problems of mining and reclamation of lignite deposits in Bełchatów – the Łódź region.
The author turned also the attention to the World Conservation Union (IUCN) which became interested in these issues and to resolutions adopted by the Union (Resolution No. 19.40). Additionally, possibility of participation of our country in described problem solving was presented.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2003, No 4, 75-78
CHANGES IN THE LAND USE WITHIN THE GRODARZ STREAM DRAINAGE BASIN WITH UTILIZATION OF AERIAL ORTOPHOTOMAPS
AND GIS METHODS IN MONITORING
Eugeniusz Nowocień, Bogusław Podolski, Rafał Wawer
The work presents research results on the changes in land use structure in two time periods: 1973-1983 and 1983-1996. Digitalization of three orthophoto maps form 1973, 1983 and 1996 revealed land use maps in vector format. Although orthophotos form 1973 and 1983 have 8-bit color depth, it was possible to distinguish only some land use types (visible patterns), divides into two groups: forests and afforestations as well as orchards and raw crops. Changes in the areas of those land use groups were calculated and spatially localized through overlay operations in GIS system. The results are shown in form of maps and table. Analyses revealed high efficiency of GIS methodology in landscape investigations, allowing to distinguish visible trends in land use structure changes over time. Aerial orthophotos seem to be a very good source for land use monitoring in absence of multispectral satellite imaginery.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2003, No 4, 107-113
METALLIC ELEMENTS’ CONTENT IN SOIL, NEEDLES AND BARK OF PINE TREES AFTER THE REDUCTION OF ALCALIC IMMISSION
The research into the content of the metallic elements in the needles and bark of pine trees and the podzol was conducted in 2001 at two Scots pine stands being under direct influence of alcalic immission of Cement Plant Małogoszcz S.A. in the Świętokrzyski administrative district. In the vicinity if the cement plant the annual average fall of dust amounts at 20-30% of the norm (defined at 200g/m2) and at present it does not endanger the environment. The conducted researches show that the long lasting small alkaline emission strongly influences the soil surface and the pine trees located close to the cement plant. The effect of that influence refers to the observed changes in the soil and bioindexes, thus showing:
– continued considerable high pH value in the neutral to slight basic and reaction range,
– high total content of Ca, K, Mg in the needles and bark of pine trees with the lower content of Al, Fe i Mn,
-unnaturally increased concentrations of the metallic elements in organic soil horizons being constantly alcalized: Ca (8-9-times), K (2-3-times), Mg (3-4-times), Pb (twice), Na (3-4-times) and the clear decrease in the content of Fe i Mn (twice).
The changes in the chemical composition of soil, pine bark and needles caused by still persisting alcalic immission influencing the functioning of the ecosystem and the vital condition of the pine stands in an unbeneficial manner.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2003, No 4, 57-71
FUNDAMENTALS OF OPTIMAL SOLUTE SUBSTANCES LOADS ESTIMATION IN RIVER OUTFLOW
The main aim of the present study is to compare a wide set of methods for estimation solute substance concentrations in river outflow, both statistical parameters of population and instant values. The reference data set consist two years of daily measurements from two catchments: lowland and mountainous. Each data set was modified to simulate seven series of measurements with weekly intervals. This allows to compare both accuracy and in some extent also precision of each tested estimation methods. No one method are always better than others. It depends not only on parameter under consideration but also on particular data subset. Generally the worse choice in terms of both accuracy and precision is to use rating relationships with discharge. Surprisingly very good result was obtained using simple linear interpolation. For routine calculation of river solute concentration from infrequent data, cubic spline was recommended both by it’s good performance, simplicity and popularity in relatively chip mathematical-statistical software for PC. The best method in comparison was collocated ordinary cokriging (cOCK). It’s performance is similar good both were secondary variable was discharge or specific electric conductivity of water (SEC). It is suggested that cOCK will be particularly useful for generating synthetic river solute concentration data for comparison of different methods for solute loads calculation (eg. Webb et al. 2000).