Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2002, No 3, 109-116
DIFFERENTIATION OF KIELCE BIOCLIMATE IN SUMMER SEASON
The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of differentiation of biotopoclimatic conditions on the area of Kielce during summer season. An attempt at estimation of the effect of individual factors upon these conditions was made too.
The measurements were made in 8 places located in various topographical situations (max. distance 4,5 km). Downtown points SQUARE (PLAC) and STATION (DWORZEC) represented build–up area, the point PARK was situated in City Park and CATHEDRAL (KATEDRA) was located on the cathedral hill. The points SILNICA and LAKE (ZALEW) were situated (respectively) at the bottom of the river valley, and in the vicinity of the artificial lake. The point HOSPITAL (SZPITAL) was on the hill near a wide road. The stand GARDEN (OGRÓDEK) was located outside the town and was treated as a relation point (fig. 1). The synchronous all day and every hour measurements were conducted in June and July of 1999, 2000 and 2001 during sunny and dry weather. The measurements of air temperature and humidity were made by Assmann’s aspiration psychrometers at 130 cm above the ground. The cooling power was measured by Kata thermometers at the same level. The speed of wind was measured by Robinson’s anemometer at height 200 cm. Statistical characteristics of some meteorological elements and biometeorological indices are presented in table 1.
Relationships between hourly values of ground surface temperature outside the city (GARDEN) and appropriate values at the remaining points were calculated (tab. 2). The temperature of the ground (active surface) most differentiated measured points. Its role as differentiation factor increased in conditions of intense insolation at midday. Relationships between active surface temperature outside the town (GARDEN) and on the other points were obtained in the form of logarithmic functions (fig. 2). These functions revealed 3 groups of points: very warm (SQUARE, STATION, CATHEDRAL), moderately warm (LAKE, HOSPITAL) and cool (PARK, SILNICA). The first group of points has usually a higher air temperature in relation to the suburban. The frequency of sultry states was calculated using Leitsner scale of equivalent temperature (Prott formula) and Scharlau’s criterion of actual vapour pressure (fig. 5). Sultry periods occurred most often in the vicinity of water (LAKE and SILNICA) and inside compact building (STATION and SQUARE).
Bioclimatic conditions in the town with respect to dry cooling power using Kacvisnsky and Petrovič scale were estimated too. The comfort conditions “calm” were most often in points GARDEN and LAKE. On the other hand thermal condition “hot” were noted most often on stands SILNICA and STATION because these places are sheltered. The conditions “cool” occurred only at points GARDEN and HOSPITAL (fig. 8).
Tree clustering analysis was conducted in order to determine bioclimatic differentiation on the basis of average values of individual elements and all elements jointly. The results are presented in the form of dendrograms using Manhattan distance method (figs. 3, 6, 7). The highest degree of bioclimatic similarity in recpect of mean values distinguished CATHEDRAL and HOSPITAL – the points situated on hill with grass as active surface. The second set forms SILNICA and PARK, which characterised by small ventilation. The most individual character of its bioclimate appeared SQUARE and STATION, which represented concrete–covered active surfaces. In conclusion one may state that differentiation of biotopoclimate in Kielce during radiation weather is determined above all by physical properties of the active surface.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2002, No 3, 61-68
TIME STRUCTURE OF SELECTED INTEGRATED MONITORING OF ENVIRONMENT DATA SERIES
Semivariogam analysis was applied to detect hidden time structure of three types of data: daily mean soil temperature at 50 cm depth, daily cumulative average of gas/aerosol pollutants concentrations and monthly weighted mean precipitation pollutants concentrations. The first data set are of high time inertia, high measurement frequency and low level of processing of original measurements. The second one differs by high time variability, looks even chaotic and lacks of any processing of original measurements data. The third data set comes from much less frequent measurements and was highly processed. Soil temperature time pattern is dominated by seasonal component. Subtracting seasonal component exposes short time autocorrelation structure with 12 and 51 days range. It’s effect of soil thermal conductivity and reflects time delay in heating and cooling at 50 cm depth. Combining deterministic (seasonal sine function) and probabilistic (semivariogram) approach yields prediction of missing data at 0.1ºC precision level so it is comparable with measurement error. Monthly precipitation solute data shows three kinds of time pattern: seasonal (Ca, Mg, Na, S-SO4, N-NH4), long time tendency (trend, Cl, Zn) or lack of autocorrelation (CTY, Mn, P-PO4). Gas/aerosol pollutants time series shows similar, strong, short time autocorrelation structure, with 3.1–3.9 and 7.5–10 days ranges. It is the effect of typical frequency of weather changes in Poland. Each three for four days (100 times in the year) new air masses flowing in and weather changes. This data shows that complete air replacement (and lack of similarity in its physical and chemical properties) take place after two weather front shiftings. Pollutants variability in the time shorter than sampling interval (1 day) accounts 25 to 35% of total variability. Semivariogram analysis can also be an aid in choosing optimal measurement frequency, loosing some redundant information.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2002, No 3, 31-43
ECOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF FOREST SOIL CONDITION DAMAGED BY ACIDIFICATION
The integrated natural environment monitoring network, which includes permanent observation sites of forest ecosystems – level II, with a suitable temporary and spatial intensity of measurements, permits to specify adequately both temporary states impulse/reaction and as spatial heterogeneity of the system states. The knowledge of the ongoing pulsation processes in ecosystems can be derived as a rule from temporary trends characterized by sufficiently long data series or by description of ecosystem state sizes. Direct multifaceted observations and measuring procedures permit to specify the system parameter changeability and thereby to approximate the probability of crossing the states of threat threshold values of changes or rapid changes in the ecosystem. The important perspective of risk state estimation emerges in the case of learning about the system states in possibly narrow time intervals, which allows for modelling.
In the study was introduced, on the basis of the syntheses of the results of long-term continuous measurements on surfaces of level II (Reuss, Johnson 1986, Wolff et al. 1999, Svedrup and Warfvinge 1993, 1995, Block et al. 2000, Pälchen, Bart 2001, Becker et al. 2000) as well as the results of the Św. Krzyż Monitoring Station (Kowalkowski et al. 2000, 2001) the possibility of the utilization of data about soils (soil solutions, permanent soil phase) for the specification of the coefficients of their states and potentials of threat due to acidification. The choice of coefficients includes: buffer reactions in soils in dependence of pH of solution, buffer ranges of soil on the basis of predominant processes of dissociation of soil solution, classification of degrees of soil acidification according to Ulrich (Ma%), base saturation, alkality coefficient (ALK μmole 1-1) of soil solutions and rainfall waters with pricing, capacity of acid neutralization (ANC μmole.μmole 1-1), molar relations Ca/Al (mole, mole-1) with pricing of stress risk Al as well as BC/Al mol.mol-1 with critical coefficients of Al stress for different trees and forest plants, as well as the resources of interchangeable cations Mb(kmol(+) hectare-1 dm-1) with pricing of their resources.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2002, No 3, 9-15
THE ROLE OF THE INTEGRATED NATURAL ENVIRONMENT MONITORING IN THE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF ECOSYSTEMS
Alojzy Kowalkowski, Marek Jóźwiak
In the search of new ways of wise management, contemporary ecologists propose introduction of an evolutionary environmental management system of whole ecosystems to the economy. Models of adaptive management ought to be based on data about processes occurring in biotope and in biocenosis, of a well-known history of development, obtained from a scientifically planned, socially credible, continuous monitoring realized in ecosystems management units (EMU). The present strategies of sustainable environmental development are specified by the leaders of organizations which implement and maintain the system of environmental management and institutional environmental watch units, according to the principle of good will. This system operates in accordance with the Resolution of the European Union No. 1836/93, approved by the Resolution No. 761/2001 of the European Parliament, European Council and the European Standard EN-ISO 14001. This standard contains a set of requirements for the environmental management system . Data resources about changes in the environment of ecosystems on the local regional and global scales, necessary for the proper planning of the management system are provided by the system of permanent monitoring areas. Their initial organization is the system of base stations of the Integrated Monitoring of the Natural Environment.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2002, No 3, 45-51
INVESTIGATION METHOD OF THE RAIN WATER INFLUENCE
ON FOREST SOIL PROPERTIES
Alojzy Kowalkowski, Marek Jóźwiak, Rafał Kozłowski
Stemfall and throughfall waters obtain new chemical properties in the forest (Table 1 Figs. 3, 4) and exert influence on the pH values of soils and other easily changing properties. New spatial arrangements of properties are developed in the forest stands, particularly around the trunks of older trees. They create concentric “gradients” around trees which change with distance from tree trunks on a definite forest acreage (Figs. 2, 6). It is known, e.g. that the pH value in surface levels of mineral soils under tree crowns is greater and the greatest in hatches between tree crowns. The knowledge of the micromosaic arrangement of the property of forest soils is made possible by the method of investigation of the paths of substance flow with rainfall waters through forest stand to soil on the basis of 5-15 parallel repetitions in the arrangement of 4 measuring lines according to cardinal points, with the intersection point – the trunk of a measuring tree (Fig. 5). Data obtained in this way at the tree trunk in the decimetric and metric distances are a sufficient basis for the cartographic representation of measurement results and ecological interpretation. Biogroups of forest-forming trees of the known crown structure (Fig. 1), morphological form of bark (Photos 1-4) and root system (Figs. 7-10) are qualified for measurement. Results of these investigations can be used directly in forest economy, and particularly in the interpretation of development trends of soils, forest assemblages and forest stands under the influence of acid falls.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2003, No 4, 23-28
THE PROPOSITION OF GEOSPHERE MONITORING
Principles of the State Environmental Monitoring were defined 10 years ago. Collected data and development of sciences indicate the need of revision and modification of SEM. The presented article underlines the necessity to extend and treat in a more complex way the „nature monitoring” concept. Firstly, it refers to the need of extension of monitoring of abiotic elements of the nature. Consequently, introduction of the geosphere monitoring, as a new sub-system in the section of environmental quality assessment has been proposed. It will include 8 elements: present deformations and tensions in the upper layer of the lithosphere, changes of the geomagnetic field and the gravity field, changes of temperatures of upper layers of the lithosphere, geochemical changes in industrial and settlement areas, geochemical changes of river sediments in Poland, geochemical changes of sediments of the Polish part of the Baltic, geochemical changes around chosen waste dumps, changes of underground waters.
Implementation of the geosphere monitoring will assure ecological safety of inhabitants of Poland. It should also deliver interesting data useful to formulate sustainable development objectives. This refers especially to such elaborations, as: regional ecological policy, development strategies for voivodeships, counties and communes. The geosphere monitoring will also allow to protect from serious ecological catastrophes and in the same time will help to reduce considerable potential costs of such catastrophes. Thanks to the implementation of this programme, Poland will be able to meet requirements resulting from international obligations of the geosphere change assessment, with particular regard to waters.