Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2002, No 3, 87-93
DYNAMICS OF SUSPENDED DUST CONCENTRATION ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OBTAINED AT THE ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKA ACADEMY MONITORING STATION IN THE YEARS 1994–2000
Marek Jóźwiak, Hubert Wróblewski
Air pollution is understood as the presence of solid, liquid and gaseous substances, in the bottom layer of the atmosphere, alien to its natural composition, which occur in quantities hazardous for man’s health, harmful for plants, animals and exerting an unfavourable influence on climate and on the way of the utilization of definite elements of the environment. The exact knowledge of the kind, causes, sizes and dynamics of the pollutants is the basis for concerted efforts aimed at the restoration and further maintenance of clean atmospheric air. Dust is one of the main components of atmospheric air pollution. In dependence of the kind and size distribution, dust may freely fall in the air or become suspended for a long time.
The aim of the present study is to present the dynamics of suspended dust on the basis of results obtained at the Monitoring Station of Świętokrzyskiej Academy in the years 1994-2000. The investigations carried out so far (Jóźwiak 2001, Jóźwiak, Kowalkowski 2002, Kowalkowski et al. 2002, Kozłowski 2001) showed that the natural environment of Świętokrzyski National Park is in the stage of multidirectional advanced and increasing evolutionary transformations. The direct sources of part of air dust pollution, measured at the Święty Krzyż Monitoring Station, are power stations, households, heating plants, industrial institutions and transportation. Registration of suspended dust concentrations derived from distant transport is due to the location of the Station 500 m above sea level and the direction of polluted air masses.
The average suspended dust concentration for the years 1994-2000 is 27.72 μg•m-3 with annual fluctuations from 38.46 μg•m-3 in the year 1994 and 28.49 μg•m-3 in the year 1998, to 25.48 μg•m-3 in the year 1995 and 24.13 μg•m-3 in the year 2000 (Fig. 4). The highest annual dust concentration was recorded in winter, spring and autumn (Fig. 5). Out of the analyzed natural factors, air temperature and relative moisture as well as rainfalls and wind speed exert effect on the change of dust concentration (Figs. 6-10).
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2002, No 3, 17-24
THE EXPLICATED CONCEPTION OF THE FOREST-AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEM MONITORING OF THE ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKI REGION
Marek Jóźwiak, Alojzy Kowalkowski
The study presents the developed conception of integrated monitoring carried out in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains since 1993. The investigations are carried out on the area of the so-called White Basin and Świętokrzyski National Park by the Monitoring Station of Świętokrzyska Academy. They include measurements of the basic features of the representative eco habitat in perpendicular section in the system atmosphere (input) – hylosphere – pedosphere (processing) – hydrosphere – lithosphere (output) as well as in the horizontal – micro drainage catchment. In accordance with adopted aims, the measuring programme comprises 6 component elements of the ecosystem: air, vegetation, climate, soils, rainfall and surface waters as well as rocks. These elements are considered in the sense of integrated interactions of environmental components, operating incessantly in time and space. The measuring programme takes into account changes in land use and various symptoms of anthropopression. This will allow in future to estimate in a more comprehensive way the dynamics of processes occurring in forest and agricultural ecosystems. It will also permit to estimate trends, prepare prognoses and determine indicatory values about the state of the natural environment, which will be used for its assessment in the realization of the assumptions of the policy of ecodevelopment on the regional and national levels.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2002, No 3, 81-84
AIR CONTAMINATION IN ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKI NATIONAL PARK ON THE BIOINDICATORS BASE BETWEEN 1991–2001
Katarzyna Sawicka–Kapusta, Marta Zakrzewska
Lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. was used to compare the air pollution in Świętokrzyski National Park in 1991 and 1998 and to estimate the air pollution in the Base Station Św. Krzyż. The data obtained showed decrease in concentrations of most studied metals. Results from 2001 indicate still high amounts of Pb, Zn and S. Basing on Global Pollution Index and Sulphur Index, ŚwNP was estimated as a moderately polluted park.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2002, No 3, 57-60
ORGANIZATION OF THE QUALITY OF ORDINARY GROUNDWATER MONITORING IN THE NATIONAL AND REGIONAL NETWORKS IN ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKIE PROVINCE
Monitoring of ordinary water quality in points of the national and regional networks on the territory of Świętokrzyskie Province has been carried out since 1991/1992. There are 24 points of the national and 106 points of the regional groundwater quality monitoring network (Fig. 1). The network points are dug wells, drilled wells, infiltration sources and intakes of river waters (in the Nida river basin). Water quality is examined on all usable watercarrying levels. Annual reports are made from the results of the examinations and delivered to the provincial Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Kielce and the Department of Environmental Protection and Agriculture of the Świętokrzyski Province Hall. They contain results of chemical analyses of groundwater together with a simple assessment. Once in a couple of years special reports are made. They contain a detailed assessment of the state of groundwater quality on the territory of the Province.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2002, No 3, 53-55
POSSIBILITIES AND WAYS OF USING FUNGI IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING
The article presents selected examples of the use of macromycetes fungi in the local monitoring of the biological environment and in the monitoring of the physical parameters of the environment. The experimental methods used in the investigation of macromycetes fungi, such as fixed investigation areas, fulfil the basic assumptions of monitoring. The biological sensitivity of fungi to various kinds of environmental changes perfectly predisposes this group for monitoring investigation. In this investigation the fungi can be perceived as the investigation object and they can be themselves indicators of changes in the environment.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2002, No 3, 71-74
MONITORING OF THE POST–IRONMAKING SPACE OF BLAST ASSEMBLY IN STARACHOWICE USING ALGAES AND SNAILS AS BIOINDICATOR OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENT STATE
Jadwiga Barga–Więcławska, Joanna Czerwik–Marcinkowska,Teresa Mrozińska–Broda
The results of algological and malacological studies on the Blast Assembly in Starachowice are presented. The alga and snails were collected in 2000 and 2001. The present study was undertaken to establish the species composition and their distribution in natural environment inquired of the post–ironmaking space. A number of 35 species of alga and 25 species of snails from different ecological groups have been found on selected sites coupled with different stages of technological process. It was observed that although far–moved degradation of soil and water, either alga and snails could accommodate to changeable circumstances of natural environment and also they created adaptor mechanism which allowed them for intensive development and slow succession of the post–ironmaking space on the Blast Assembly. The occurrence in this area of rare and vulnerable species (Ophiocytium iikae, Helix lutescens) indicates a unique natural character of the Assembly.