Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 27-35
PROJECTED GEOPARK MAŁOPOLSKA GAP OF VISTULA RIVER LANDSCAPE’S DIVERSIFICATION
Marian Harasimiuk, Justyna Warowna, Grzegorz Gajek
The projected Geopark Małopolska Gap of Vistula River includes gap valley and partly surrounding mesoregions. It causes large variations of Geopark landscapes. Characteristic of landscapes including genesis, evolution and the human impact on landscapes as areas for potential development of geotourism are presented.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 13-25
PROJECTED CHANGES IN THE HYDROLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE VISTULA LAGOON UNDER INFLUENCE OF NEW NAVIGABLE CHANNEL THROUGH
THE VISTULA SPIT
As a result of a query performed using source materials and field studies found that the biggest problem for the Lagoon to create a channel through the Vistula Spit, just at the stage of construction and operation will be muddy water due to exhaustion from the bottom land of the content dusty-clay particles and organic (silt). In addition to increased turbidity may occur (depending on the type of pollutant and its concentration) effects caused by the release of organic matter and toxic substances and biogenic compounds deposited in the sediments (increased biological oxygen demand and the impact of toxic substances). Changes in salinity of the water in the Vistula Lagoon can occur only locally and in a very small degree. The primary source of salinity of the Vistula Lagoon will remain stormy waves of the Strait of Baltiysk. The natural conditions of hydrodynamic and water hydrology on the Vistula Lagoon will not be materially changed and will continue to depend on meteorological and hydrological conditions at sea.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 87-96
PAH VARIABILITY IN VERTICAL PROFILES FROM OTALŻYNO, HUCZWA AND STOCZEK PEATLAND SITES
Izabela Bojakowska, Aleksandra Sztuczyńska, Bogusław Wiłkomirski
The purpose of this study was to examine differentiation and variation of the spectrum of unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic compounds found in vertical profiles extracted from three peatland sites. Three peatland deposits were selected for the study: Otalżyno near Kartuzy (northern Poland), Stoczek near Radzyń Podlaski (central Poland) and Huczwa near Tomaszów Lubelski (south-eastern Poland). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content was determined by chromatography. Determination of hydrocarbon content in the extracts identified 17 compounds (15 of which are included on the so-called “list” of priority PAHs that EPA recommends should be targeted for measurement in the natural environment). Peats from the Otalżyno deposit (a raised bog) are characterised by lower PAH content – 436 μg•kg-1 compared with peats from the Huczwa and Stoczek (fens), where PAH content is 754 and 567 μg• kg-1, respectively. The PAH spectrum of the peats studied is dominated by tricyclic compounds, primarily by phenanthrene. This is in contrast with the PAH spectra of modern deposits in which tetra- and pentacyclic compounds account for the majority of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Bog peats have higher acenaphthene content, but at the same time have relatively low levels of fluoranthene relative to phenanthrene, if compared with peats from the Huczwa and Stoczek deposits.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 79-85
DIFFERENTIATION OF DURATION AND THERMAL CONDITIONS OF THE VEGETATION SEASON IN THE BESKID MTS. AND CARPATHIAN FOOTHILL ON THE GLDAS DATABASE IN THE PERIOD 2001–2011
Witold Bochenek, Justyna Dedo, Wojciech Marczewski
The report presents an analysis of the duration of the vegetation season and the air temperature in the area of Beskid Mts. and Carpathian Foothills based on data collected by GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) database, with a resolution of 0.25 degree spatial and temporal – a month. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) database, the determination of absolute values and trends of duration and average air temperature of the vegetation season. The average annual duration of the vegetation season in each „window” ranged from 165–239 days, demonstrating the diversity of the average annual values calculated for the total area of 214 (2003 and 2005) to 234 days (2008). The tendency of the elongation of the vegetation season is observed, especially thanks to „move to” the dates of its beginning. The average air temperature during the vegetation season in the study area closed between 10.3–14.2°C, the coldest vegetation season was in 2010 (12.7°C), while the warmest – in 2006 (13.8°C). The slight declining tendency (-0,05day/ year) is observed in the average air temperature during the vegetation season.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 69-77
THE IMPACT OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE FROM CZĘSTOCHOWA AGGLOMERATION ON ACIDITY DEGREE OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.
BARK OF „ZIELONA GÓRA” AND „SOKOLE GÓRY” NATURE RESERVES (WYŻYNA KRAKOWSKO-CZĘSTOCHOWSKA)
The aim of the research was to conduct a quantitative evaluation of the level of air pollution with sulphur dioxide in nine districts of Częstochowa city during autumn-winter (from October to March) and summer season (from July to September) as well as to identify the main emission source of this compound. The location of Częstochowa agglomeration is not favourable due to surrounding industrial areas which emit the largest volume of gas pollution within a year, in particular Bełchatów Poviat (from the northern side), the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (from the southern side) and the Małopolskie Voivodeship, which however is not situated in the direct vicinity to the city (from the south-eastern side).
The measurements of SO2 concentration in air at the area of Częstochowa agglomeration were conducted in a form of a continuous monitoring and the SO2 concentration values at the individual research stations were determined for each month. The measurements were taken with passive samplers and four samplers were exposed at each research station. The concentration of the compound was determined on the basis of the mass of released compound, exposition time and calibration constants (Pyta, Dymecki 2006).
The highest sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations at practically most of the research stations located in the Częstochowa city were noted in winter season, mainly in January and December whereas the lowest in summer season and in October. The highest SO2 concentration during autumn-winter and summer research cycle occurred at the research station situated in the vicinity of the city’s largest pollution emitter – „Częstochowa Steelworks” and in the eastern part of the city, namely in two districts with low-rise buildings: Lisiniec and Dźbów. The contamination of the districts with lowrise buildings during winter time was related with burning large amount of materials with sulphur content in household furnaces.
The most strongly affecting emitter on „Zielona Góra” and „Sokole Góry” forest areas was
„Częstochowa” steelworks. „Zielona Góra” reserve that is situated at the administrative border of Częstochowa is characterized strong acidulation of biological material, which was reflected by low value of pH Pinus sylvestris bark.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 143-151
THE EDUCATIONAL PROJECT AS A PART OF INTEGRATING THE KNOWLEDGE
OF THE REGION, LANDSCAPE, TOURISM AND NATURE CONSERVATION
The learning process with the use of the project realization encourages students to individual decision taking, to the way of realizing tasks as well as responsibility for their realization. The students learn how to plan and organize their work, cooperate in the team, moreover, to solve problems. Thanks to that students develop their passions and interests. The obligation of the educational project realization is referred to the 21a paragraph of the Regulation of ‘MEN’ dated on 30 April 2007 dealing with the conditions and methods of the assessment, classification and promotion of students as well as conducting tests and examinations in public schools (No 83/567) based on the novelization from 20 August 2010 (DzU Nr 156, poz. 1046).