Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 113-126
PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF RESEARCH ON TRANSFORMATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF RAINFALL IN PINE-OAK FOREST STAND
FOR DISCRETE RAINFALL EPISODES (PUSZCZA ZIELONKA)
Robert Kruszyk, Bernard Okoński, Paweł Strzeliński
The aim of research was identification of physicochemical properties transformation of rainfall water and assessment of spatial distribution of atmospheric deposition under tree crown layer in forest ecosystem. Research site was located in oak-pine forest stand in Puszcza Zielonka Forest. The research period covered July to November period of 2010 year. Despite of rainfall volume reduction under tree canopy due to interception process, the level of atmospheric deposition in investigated forest ecosystem is higher than at non-forested control site. The result may be attributed to the process of rainfall water enrichment at the tree canopy zone in cations such as potassium and magnesium washed out from tree foliage surface.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 127-134
CHARACTERISTICS OF ANNUAL AIR TEMPERATURE, THERMAL SEASONS AND THE VEGETATION SEASONS IN DZIWNÓW
The chief aim of the research was to identify temporal variability of mean annual air temperature and the occurence of thermal seasons and the vegetation season in the Pomeranian Bay coastal zone, for example Dziwnów. Thermal seasons were determined on the methodology used by Wiszniewski (1960), Makowiec (1983), Piotrowicz (2000), which includes eight seasons and is the right of the phenological properties (SzygaPluta, 2011). In addition, the vegetation season was characterized by the occurence, in accordance with the Merecki’s criteria (1914). Thermal properties analysis for the study area was made on the average daily air temperature data from the 1956–2009 period. The paper presents the long-term trends of temperature variability of the Pomeranian Bay coastal zone.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 103-111
ASSESSMENT OF HYGROCLIMATIC CONDITIONS
OF VEGETATION IN POLAND
Krzysztof M. Kożuchowski
The paper presents the evaluation of the radiant index of aridity for Poland’s climate. This index is defined as the ratio of annual value of the long- and shortwave net radiation of the active surface (Rn) to the heat energy required to vaporization of the annual precipitation total: RIA=Rn/LP, where L is vaporization heat (2.48 MJ/kg), P – precipitation total (mm) (Budyko 1975).
It has been assumed that average annual precipitation throughout Polish lowlands (<300 m a.s.l.) equals 592 mm, net radiation equals 1344 MJ/m2 year, and thus RIA = 0.92 (Tab. 1).
Forest ecosystems are to be found in climates where 1/3 <RIA <1. Values 1<RIA<2 correspond to steppes. The maximum of the primary net production corresponds to the index of aridity RIA = 0.8. Assuming the optimum of index for vegetation (0.8) the most favorable sum of the annual precipitation in Poland has been estimated as Popt. = 677 mm. The average actual precipitation is therefore 13% lower than the favorable one. The greatest deficits of precipitation (-20% of the optimum) occur in central and central-east parts of Poland. Precipitation exceeding the preferred values occurs in highlands and partly at the coast of the Baltic sea (Fig. 3). The critical value of precipitation (Pcr) has been estimated as corresponding to the aridity index RIA=1.0. In a number of places in central parts of Poland (Wielkopolska, Kujawy, Mazovia) the average annual precipitation P<Pcr has been identified.
Annual biomass (B) and wood matter (G) production in natural wood subregions in Poland are correlated with the precipitation totals (Pa) and the indexes of climate aridity (RIA) (Tab. 3).
Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 55-65
THE QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM OF POLLUTANTS MEASUREMENTS IN WET DEPOSITION AT THE PUSZCZA BORECKA STATION
Krzysztof Skotak, Anna Degórska, Zdzisław Prządka, Tomasz Śnieżek
Despite the improvement of air quality in Europe, some pollutants (including ozone, particulate matter, benzene and contamination identified in deposition) remains a significant problem. Results of measurements carried out under the State Environmental Monitoring System in Poland shows acidic precipitation (pH less then 5,6). For ensure good quality environmental monitoring results and making possibility its comparison, establishing the quality assurance and quality control system is necessary (QA/QC). This requires a lot of efforts including implementation of specified procedures and activities for systematization of measurement methods and assessment of uncertainty results.
This paper presents QA/QC system for pollutants measurements in wet deposition at the Puszcza Borecka Station. Identification and quantification the main components of uncertainty in elements of the measuring chain were done. Result shows, that most important elements affecting the uncertainty in the wet deposition measurements included precipitation sampling and measurement, using laboratory methods for the pollutant analysis and deposition rules calculation. Obtained results of calculating expanded uncertainty in 2008–2011 period for individual pollutants for load in precipitation (including ions, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were discussed. Uncertainty results confirmed meeting European Union and Polish quality requirements at Puszcza Borecka Station. Genially the lowest values of the uncertainty measurements in wet deposition were observed for ions (about 15%), and highest for heavy metals (25%). The largest fluctuations in uncertainty (between 15–45%) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were observed.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 97-101
CRUSTACEAN ZOOPLANKTON OF HARMONIOUS LAKES
IN WIGRY NATIONAL PARK AND RELATIONSHIP
WITH THE TROPHIC STATE
Maciej Karpowicz, Andrzej Górniak
Zooplankton is an important level in the trophic chain in freshwater ecosystems and is a good indicator of changes in the lake, and yet it was not considered as a useful index in the Water Framework Directive. The long-term data from Lake Wigry show that the structure of crustacean zooplankton is stable in recent years, despite fluctuations in the chemical composition of water. The zooplankton structure changes only in the situation with a clear long-term trend in the trophic status of lakes. Therefore, zooplankton should be used to assess the ecological status of lakes.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2013, No 14, 37-42
THE ROLE OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATORS IN VALORIZATION OF ENVIRONMENT
Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak, Marek Jóźwiak
Environmental stocktaking and valorization are the basic procedures in management of public space. The thorough knowledge of a given area is the condition of making a plan of spatial development and exposing different forms of conservation in. Having environmental stocktaking, it is possible to valorize the area by dividing it into different categories depending on environmental value and the level of anthropic pressure. Bioindication is a common and effective method used in estimation of environment which allows the estimation of the influence of abiotic conditions on organism functioning and it is also one of the basic methods in monitoring. One of the most sensitive biomonitors, out of agamous organisms, are lichens. Its utilization allows to create the maps of toxic substance threats which may be used by municipal authorities during making plans of spatial development of the city. Analysis of lichen thallus morphological changes allow estimation of environmental conditions. They are carried out with the use of stereoscopic and electron microscope. Lichen thallus shows macroscopic colour changes, shellings and the loss of organs of vegetative reproduction – labial soralia in comparison to thallus growing in clean environment. The estimation of the level of anthropic pressure with the use of bioindicators allows spatial valorization which may be used in marking out areas with different purposes (sporting, housing – single-family housing, multi-family housing, green zone) and working out variants of investment location in the district.