Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2004, No 5, 235-247
PERIGLACIAL PAST AND GEOECOLOGICAL PRESENT IN GERMAN LOWER MOUNTAIN RANGES
Katen from Taunus, Odenwald and Fulda-Werra Region reflect the relation of the periglacial sequence of soliflux covers with the terrain relief. This regularity is characteristic for the whole area of the Central German Uplands. In compliance with the instruction for the Soil Survey Description (AG Boden 1994) each slope covers are qualified as: bottom, central and main. These covers have an essential influence on contemporary geoecological conditions. First and foremost, they influence spatial differentiation of soils. The geological substrata influences the mechanical and mineralogical composition of each covers and in the same time the geoecological relations within the terrain. The quality of present habitats was shaped by the Pleistocene soliflux processes along with cryoturbation mixing of the local and allochtonic material.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2004, No 5, 47-94
IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSFORMATION ICE LEVELS AND SLOPE SOIL COVERS FORMED IN THE PERIGLACIAL AND EXTRAGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS
In Central and Northern Europe there were found 14 parallel belts of glacial, fluvial and Eolian sediments of the age from 500ka to younger ones – from 6ka, which distribution decrease from the South to the North. These belts are marked with recessional moraines and concurrent pre-valleys of the successive Pleistocene Stadials of Scandinavian glaciations. Within every of these belts there are found parallel mosaics of soils with prevailing soils according to the age of a given belt.
The investigation area holds no signs of anthropogenic changes within morphological profiles and profiles of measurable features and characteristics. Most soils of these area have features connected with litho- and pedomorphological activity of diverse in the space-time ice factor in the Pleistocene as well as in cold zones and levels of the Holocene environment.
In the dependence from the energy and the matter of each factors that operated within the soil mosaics, which formed soil landscapes, following dominating actions took place: lithogenic – mother rocks, geomorphological – land surface, climo-genic – climatic, biogenic – assemblages of living organisms and of the man’s origin – anthropogenic.
As far as warm climate is considered the soil development is conditioned by biogenic factors along with a local anthropogenic factor. On the other hand, in cool climatic conditions a prevailing part of climogenic, geomorphogenic and lithologic factors are typical. With an activity of the climogenic factor in cold and boreal climates the zones of periglacial transformations are connected which change, with a decrescent intensity inside of ground, mineral substrata and sediments within lowlands, uplands and mountainous plateaus with a small relief. In mountains, piedmonts and uplands with a significant relief the geomorphological factor has a prevailing meaning. Together with a climatic factor on slopes, it forms series of typical periglacial and degraded soil covers. A lithogenic factor has an impact in every place, where the unaltered rocky substratum or sediments are uncovered or will become exposed. The biogenic factor that develops in time cooperates also with climogenic, geomorphological and lithogenic factors in all soil mosaics, with different changing intensity in time and space. Changes of climate and living organisms assemblages are connected with passing time, what causes that in soil profiles polygenetic, monogenetic, relict and present levels are found.
The detailed classification of morphopedogenetic transformations with diagnostic levels in terrestric soils are presented in Tables 4 and 6. Characterizations of zones of transformations and soil covers, taking into account the name, thickness, structure, lithology, granulation, relation to covers in the floor and in the ceiling, other concurrent features and diagnostic levels are presented in Tables 10 and 11.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2004, No 5, 149-157
ORGANIC HORIZON IN PROFILE OF ALLUVIAL FAN FROM BOREAL/ATLANTIC TRANSITION IN PODGRODZIE UPON WISŁOKA RIVER
Anna Budek, Leszek Starkel
Organic horizon and breaks in sedimentation of alluvial fan from Boreal / Atlantic transition in Podgrodzie upon Wisłoka river.
This paper consider the genesis of one loamy organic horizon in the sequence of alluvial fan of small Maga creek, the tributary of Wisłoka river at the margin of Polish Carpathians. This fan represent the Holocene phase with higher frequency of extreme events dated between 8400 and after 7800 yrs 14C BP (fig.1). In this sequence 6 – 9 m thick there were earlier distinguished above 100 flood layers separated by 13 loamy – organic horizons, indicating the breaks in the deposition (fig.2).
The highest of this fossil organic horizon has been studied in detail using micromorphological method. The results have shown that this loamy – organic horizon originated in short time interval and the soil processes changed it in minimal degree (fig.3). Continuous and rapid upbuilding of fan surface excluded the formation of developed soil profile. The organic horizon in the fan sequence has developed as the horizon of local paludification with presence of high groundwater level. However, the weathered quartz grains seem to indicate the existence of pedogenic processes, which also facilitated the decomposition and mineralization of organic matter. Examination of thin section also shows that the process of gleing was weakly developed or was absent, due to higher permeability of the ground, connected a high content of sandy fraction (fig.3).
Natural EnvironmentMonitoring 2005, No 6, 49-58
THE IMPACT OF AIR MASSES CIRCULATION ON SPECIFIC ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY OF PRECIPITATION WATER IN THE BYSTRZANKA CATCHMENT IN 1995-2004
This paper contains analysis of the specific electric conductivity (SEC) of precipitation water on the background air masses types, advection types and wind direction during 10-years measurements on the IG&SO PAS (IME Base Station) at Szymbark. The aim this analysis was evaluation of influence, which have different air masses, advection types and wind direction on the SEC of precipitation water in a long-term and possibility of location of potential air-pollution source. It.s ascertain the increase of the SEC during advections of anticyclonal air masses: polar-sea and polar-continental from south and south-eastern direction. Wind direct have a impact on delivering of pollution from nearby buildings.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2005, No 6, 95-99
INTERNATIONAL LEGAL REGULATIONS IN RANGE OF AIR PROTECTION
Present elaboration presents chosen normative acts in sphere of environmental protection with indication on air protection. It perform distribution on international regulations about world coverage, European regulations and polish internal regulations. The particular push is put on United Nations Convention on Climate Change including Kioto Protocol (international coverage) and on solution concerning emission trade of greenhouse gas and other substance by EU accepted. Presentation of individual legal acts brings the readers closer to problems of natural environmental protection. Results of presented solutions and mechanism of operations, which purpose is not only reduction of emission of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere but also general care on natural environmental, will be visible within several forthcoming year. The analysis will be invaluable scientific material which could be the base for other future natural environmental protection projects.
Natural Environment Monitoring 2005, No 6, 9-22
INTEGRATED PATTERNS OF UTILISATION ON THE ELEVATION OF PINCZOW NATURAL CONSERVATION CONSISTENT WITH LAND USE (VINICULTURE)
Martin Döhler, Ralf Gründling, Jürgen Heinrich
The aim of the authors is to present special patterns of utilisation on a scarp elevation which consists of cretaceous marl and tertiary limestone. The climatic and edaphic conditions are described as an assumption for arable crop production (viniculture). The very steep parts of the hill are covered by xerothermic grassland including a large number of endangered species.
This grassland is on the brink of extinction where bushes are replacing the habitat. To conserve the rare plant association, it is necessary to establish natural conservation with adapted maintenance. The point is to innovate a new concept of utilisation which combines both, cash cropping and protection of cultural landscape.