Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2004, No 5 129-138
TEMPORAL TRENDS IN THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRECIPITATION, SOIL SEEPAGE AND STREAMWATER IN TWO FORESTED CATCHMENTS IN THE BLACK FOREST AND THE EASTERN ORE MOUNTAIS (GERMANY)
Martin Armbruster, Karl-Heinz Feger
This paper focuses on the temporal trends in the composition of precipitation, throughfall affected by atmospheric deposition-load and the consecutive modifactions in soil seepage and stream water chemistry of two forested catchments in Germany. The catchment ‘Schluchsee’ (Black Forest; SW Germany) has been exposed to relatively low atmospheric inputs lasting until a few years ago whereas Rotherdbach (Ore Mountains; E Germany) received considerable amounts of acid deposition (mainly originating from SO2 emissions). Both sites reveal decreases in S deposition and cojoined acidity during the 1990s which ensue also the general trends in Europe. In response to the decline in atmospheric, S deposition, soil solution and stream-water SO42- concentrations decreased significantly in the investigation period 1988-1998. In this time, the level of N deposition was more or less constant at both sites. At Schluchsee, NO3– concentration in stream water remained more or less unchanged, whilst a decrease at Rotherdbach was observed. Remarkable recovery of alkalinity was found in seepage water as indicated by increasing acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Stream-water ANC increased only in the permanently acidified Rotherdbach. A change of ANC was observed in the Schluchsee stream, which was characterized by episodic acidification during high-flow conditions. Nevertheless, the key factor controlling the recovery from surface water acidification was the type, amount and distribution of stored S pools in the ecosystem. Thus, time series analysis of long-term data of input-output chemistry can be a valuable instrument in order to improve the understanding of linked terrestrial-aquatic systems and give useful clues for modeling efforts.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2004, No 5, 103-115
ABOUT DURING FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF LESSIVE SOILS ENVIRONMENT IN CENTRAL EUROPE
K.-D. Jäger, D. Kopp
In the stratigraphical investigation of Central European loess exposures the Bt-horizons of buried soils representing the lessivé group (luvisols respectively podzoluvisols) as a rule are regarded as indication of interglacials.
Nevertheless, recently Bt-horizons of luvisols occur frequently on glaciogenic till substrates, too. There podzoluvisols are widespread. With good reason their development due to periglacial environment causing permafrost soil may be assumed. In the network patterns of the recent soil cover the same positions are occupied by podzoluvisols as in the lowland areas providing glacial deposits as on the loess deposits of the uplands. Consequently, comparable environment and period of origin may be supposed in all probability.
Apparently, the decisive condition of development causing Bt-horizons has been a period characterized by highly intensive water saturation of the contemporaneous surface due to melting permafrost during the lateglacial transition to the following interglacial. The consequence for the stratigraphical investigation of loess profiles means that any Bt-horizon does not indicate the real interglacial (or even its climax) but reflects the preceding transition from a previous glacial to the succeeding interglacial.
Apparently the period of creating lessivé soils occupying actual surfaces is shared mainly by the late Vistulian interstadials of Meiendorf and Bølling.
The sequence of horizons characterizing a lot or even the majority of actually superficial luvisols covering till as well as loess substrates in Central Europe does not correspond to the instructions recommended by the State Geological Surveys in Germany (Ah-Ael-Bt-C). Rather a correct description could be ABv-Bv-Et-Bt-C.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2004, No 5, 119-126
GEOLOGICAL CRITERIA IN THE STUDIES OF BIOGENIC ACCUMULATION BASINS
The paper presents the advantages of geological criteria in contemporary studies of biogenic accumulation basins. As peat science is an applied discipline that does not focus on geology and biology of wetlands, knowledge about peat-forming basins and processes occurring there, should be the core of telmatology.
Geological structure of peat-forming areas (accumulated in process of sedentation) and peat underlying sediments (accumulated in process of sedimentation) allows understanding the hydrological conditions. It is also crucial to extensive access to peat archive of mire-lake sediments.
The paper is comprised of following parts: peatlands and wetlands, inland biogenic accumulation basins, peatlands and peat, sedimentation and sedentation and the concept of peatland ecosystem.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2004, No 5, 213-234
MORPHOLOGY OF QUARTZ GRAINS FROM RELICT RESIDUAL DEPOSITS OF THE TERRA ROSSA AND TERRA FUSCA TYPE FROM THE HOLY CROSS MTS. AND THEIR MARGIN
Quartz grains from relict residual deposits of limestones located in the Holy Cross Mts. and their margin were analysed. The non-carbonate residual deposits of the terra rossa type as the residuum of Devonian limestone could have developed at the Permian/Triassic boundary, or in the Tertiary in a hot climate with dry and humid periods. The terra fusca residual deposit, in turn, as a residuum of Tertiary limestones, developed during the oldest interglacial of the Quaternary. In relation to the general characteristics of these residual deposits the evolution of quartz grains isolated from the non-carbonate residuum of the limestones is analysed. It was assumed that under different magnifications the quartz grains reveal features of chemical weathering typical of a neutral environment. Features pointing to an alkaline environment, when the quartz grain is still within the limestone, were observed to a much smaller degree. Amorphous silica may cement quartz grains, pass into crystalline forms (opal) or in certain physical-chemical conditions sodium-calcium aluminosilicates – zeolites – can be formed. Such recrystallisation is one of the stages of diageneis, when stable minerals are formed and the grain undergoes overgrowing.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2004, No 5, 159-173
THE COMPOSITION OF MACRO- AND MICROELEMENTS IN GRAIN SIZE FRACTIONS OF GENETIC HORIZONS OF SOILS DEVELOPED FROM VARIOUS MOTHER-ROCKS IN EASTERN POLAND
In the years 1977-1988, in the contemporary Chair of the Soil Science of Agricultural University in Lublin, the multidirectional research on the chemical composition and proprieties of each grain size fraction separated from 6 profiles of typical soils of Eastern Poland was carried out (Fig. 1). The effect of this research was, among others, the elaboration and publication of detailed characteristics of several macro – and microelements (Fe, Ti, V, Pb, Mn, B, Al). However, due to external factors the research was not completed then. Taking into account a wide range of data obtained from this experiment, we present in this paper the research results for all determined elements (Tables 2-7). Simultaneously, this work is a kind of announcement of detailed elaborations that will be published separately for every element in the future. The scope of these elaborations will be similar to the above mentioned first one.
Within the presented paper we will emphasize the most essential elements of the research results which can be summarized as follows:
The soil profiles developed from different mother-rocks showed an essential influence of the mother-rock factor on the chemism of separated fractions. The analysis of the research results on the example of iron and aluminium, confirms a significant role of these elements in processes of the soil profile formation. The results confirm partially an argument of Le Riche who points out distinct differences in actions of these elements during soil formations processes. The iron, after the activation, shifts mostly in the form of hydrated oxides. On the opposite, the aluminium usually stays in a form of amorphous aluminosilicates – this is why the most of the mass of Al is bounded in particles of greater diameter (small dust). The research confirmed a significant role of pH of the environment in a course of these processes. In the acid reaction environment the iron mobility increased. The review of the whole obtained results (Tables 2-7) shows that in the case of most marked elements, their secondary accumulation is connected with a colloidal fraction. Departures from this rule (aluminium, titanium) are not accidental but result from their geochemical dissimilarities. The attempts of estimation of negative anthropogenic changes on the example of the occurrence and reaction of the lead in the soil did not proved distinct signs of biogenic accumulation of this element in soil horizons. In comparison to the mother-rock the fall of the lead content was observed in genetic horizons of all examined profiles. The results confirm a controversial opinion about ambiguous influence of the reaction (pH) on the dissolubility and mobility of the lead in the soil environment. The composition of graphic forms of counts proposed by Le Riche confirms partly the argument of this author about the geochemical affinity of some elements to the iron but other to the aluminium (Fig. 2). One can infer that realization of similar elaborations (graphs) for all elements will contribute to deepen our knowledge on these problems.
Regional Monitoring of Natural Environment 2004, No 5, 95-102
ANTARCTIC AND ARCTIC SOILS AS HABITATS FOR ORGANISMS
H.-P. Blumeand M. Bölter
A concept for an ecological rating of habitats is given by this approach, which comprises different polar soils. This concept was used to understand strong differences in kind and intensity of vegetation cover, in the amount of bacterial biomass and in some examples in the activity of soil animals of sites with permafrost of the Continental Antarctic, the Maritime Antarctic and of some Canadian Islands.
It could be shown that mainly the length of the snow free period, the intensity of cryoturbation and the amount of accumulated organic matter control plant cover and bacterial activity; but also the water, air and nutrient conditions have an important influence. This influence, however, is more closely related to local and seasonal aspects.